Case studies of the management of elasmobranch fisheries


Edited by
Ross Shotton
Fishery Resources Officer
Marine Resources Service
FAO Fisheries Department
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome, Italy

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ISBN 92-5-104292-6

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 1999

Shotton, R. (ed.)
Case studies of the management of elasmobranch fisheries.
FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 378, part 2. Rome, FAO. 1999. pp. 480–920.
This report, consisting of 29 studies, describes the relevant population biology, resource analyses and fishery management of elasmobranchs at regional, national and sub-regional levels - in Atlantic Europe, the United States, the Caribbean, Guatemala, South Africa, Uruguay, the Falkland Islands, the Seychelles, two states in India, the Maldives, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Fiji and Ecuador. Regional accounts are also presented of the management of Galeorhinus galeus in different national fisheries, management of deepwater shark populations and management of elasmobranchs within the context of a regional tuna fisheries commission. A description of the activities of Non-governmental Organizations in relation to elasmobranchs is given and an account of the quality of the reported elasmobranchs landings data available in theFAO Nominal Catcjes amd Landings Data Base.
In general, the case studies cover the topics of the resource (species composition of fishery, distribution of fishery and associated species either as bycatch or discards) and development and current status of the means of prosecuting the fishery and the harvesting process. The evolution of the catch, fleet and fishing effort are also given. In terms of commerce, fishery markets and revenues from the fishery are discribed where possible together with comments of the economics of the fishery and information relating to the fisheries workforce.
In relation to fisheries administration, management objectives and national fisheries policies are described, in particular, any that exist for elasmobranch fisheries, and the manner in which the planning process functions. Where applicable, the objective setting process, the stakeholders in the process and how the negotiations are handled are described. Who may fish and how access is granted and controlled is noted, its cost, and the nature of fishery property rights, if any. If there are gear restrictions, their nature and effectiveness is described together with any regulations on vessel characteristics. Likewise, where regulations exist (on catch, closed seasons, effort limitations, or other) they are described. The authors further provide a descriptive and critical review of the policy setting process in relation to the elasmobranch fisheries, its successes, ongoing and unresolved problems and the nature of their weaknesses.
Where there is an annual operational management planning process, the provision of resource management advice together with a description of national departments involved in this process are described. Descriptions are given of the management support activities, e.g., the methods used for collection of catch and effort data together with evaluations of the process and its problems. Several of the papers discuss stock assessment activities including reviews of the process. Many accounts complement this with descriptions and analyses of the biological advice review process and comments on the sustainability of the resource. National accounts also describe the relevant law and enforcement process. Finally there are descriptions of the extent of management success, e.g. the profitability of the fishery and the social welfare implicatoins of the management objectives and policies. Where possible, the costs of management are given.
The report consists of two parts. The first part contains the analyses for the fisheries in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, Malaysia and northern Australia. The second part contains the case studies for Southern Australia and the Pacific Ocean, the regional accounts and the descriptions of the activities of NGOs and quality of reported landings data.

Keywords: Elasmobranchs, sharks, rays, fisheries management, catch statistics, NGOs.


FAO Fisheries Department
FAO Regional Fishery Officers

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1.Management of shark fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic
(M. Pawson and M. Vince)
2.An overview of the Grand Banks Skate Fishery
(D. W. Kulka and F. K. Mowbray)
3.Management of shark fisheries in Atlantic Canada
(W. N. Joyce)
4.The management of the United States Atlantic shark fishery
(S. Branstetter)
5.Shark fisheries in the Caribbean: the status of their management including issues of concern in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and Dominica
(C. Chan A Shing)
6.Estudio sobre la pesqueria del tiburón en Guatemala
(C. Ruiz Alvarado and N. Mijangos López)
7.Management of elasmobranch fisheries in South Africa
(D. W. Japp)
8.La pesqueria de tiburones en Uruguay con especial referencia al cazón ( Galeorhinus galeus Linnaeus 1758)
(H. Nion)
9.Management of the Falkland Islands skate and ray fishery
(D. J. Agnew, C.P. Nolan and J. Pompert)
10.Management of shark fisheries in Seychelles
(J. Nageon de Lestang)
11.Management of shark fisheries in two Indian coastal states: Tamil Nadu and Kerala
(F. Hanfee)
12.Management of shark fisheries in Sri Lanka
(L. Joseph)
13.Management of shark fisheries in the Maldives
(R. C. Anderson and Z. Waheed)
14.Management of shark fisheries in Malaysia
(A. Ali, R. Ali, M. Nasir and Salleh)
15.Management of shark fisheries in Western Australia
(C. Simpfendorfer)
16.Management of shark fisheries in Northern Australia (J. D. Stevens)
17.Southern Australian shark fishery management
(T. I. Walker)
18.New Zealand shark fishery management
(M.P. Francis and B. Shallard)
19.Fishery management of sharks in Japan
(H. Nakano)
20.Shark fisheries in Fiji: their management and issues of future concern
(K. Swamy)
21.The dogfish (Squalus acanthias) fishery of British Columbia, Canada and its management
(R. Bonfil)
22.Management of shark fisheries off the West Coast of the USA
(D. L. Hanson)
23.Casos de estudios sobre el manejo de las pesquerias de tiburones en el Ecuador
(J. Martinez.)
24.Galeorhinus galeus fisheries of the world
(T. Walker)
25.Management considerations of deep-water shark fisheries
(J. D. M. Gordon)
26.Management of shark control programmes
(S. F. J. Dudley and N.A. Gribble)
27.Shark and related species catch in tuna fisheries of the tropical Western and Central Pacific Ocean
(P.G. Williams)
28.The role of non-governmental organisations in the international conservation of elasmobranchs
(S. Fowler)
29.Species identification practices of countries reported landings of Chondrichthyan fishes in the FAO nominal catches and landings data base
(R. Shotton)