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Feng Yang-Lian

The continuous growth and comprehensive development of agriculture and livestock production in China are promoting the development of a feed industry.

The development of agricultural production is paving the way for the development of the feed industry by providing it with more raw materials. Animal feeding should be based on self-reliance and the exploitation of available feed resources is the basis for a feed industry. Grain production rose by 5 percent in 1984 to 407 million tons, sugar crops by 19 percent to 48 million tons. The main food grains for human consumption in China are rice and wheat. Therefore, maize, sorghum and the by-products of food processing, e.g. rice bran, wheat bran, distiller's and brewer's residues, the residues of bean curd, beet pulp and food grain offal, are the main feed ingredients. Oilseeds meals are the main protein resources in China. The output of oil-bearing crops and soybeans came to about 12 million tons and 10 million tons respectively.

Increased straw production goes along with increased grain yields in China. Straw, the huge area of grassland, silage, green forages and sugar beet pulp are the main roughages for ruminants.

Straw has great potential for ruminant feeding and research work to increase straw digestibility is being done. Treatments with alkali, ammonia and urea are all being examined.

General situation of the compound feed industry in China

The compound feed industry is a new and developing industry. Output was 1 million tons in 1980 and this rose to 12 million tons in 1984. There are 93 factories of more than 10 thousand tons capacity and 2 500 factories of 2 – 10 thousand tons capacity. The total output of compound feed is only a small proportion of the total production of concentrates.

Excluding the large factories, the village industry plays an important role. The village industry produces about one-third of total compound feeds. For example, the agricultural departments of Guangdong Province supported 44 countries to set up 45 small factories each with a capacity of 1 000 tons in 1982 and extended this to a further 33 countries in 1983. 76 percent of chicken farms in Jiuquan Area of Gansu Province used compound feeds which were produced by local factories.

The production of supplements, vitamins, premix, animal by-products, fishmeal, silkworm larvae and others are being developed simultaneously with this industry.

Freshwater fish-farming is an important business in China and a high yield per unit of water area can be achieved. Compound feed production is now developing to provide for fish and shrimp production.

The development of animal production and the feed industry also promoted the development of feed mill equipment manufacture. There was only one factory producing feed mill equipment before 1979. Now there are about 258.

General situation of research work for nutrient requirements of farm livestock

Feeding standards for livestock in China have been published.

As the calculation of energy requirements for milk production is complex in practice, Chinese dairy farms have always based feeding on milk yield. I suggested that an energy system should combine the scientific concept of metabolizable or net energy with feeding practice. In this system the energy value of feed and the requirements of dairy cattle are expressed in Dairy Cattle Energy Units, one unit being equivalent to the energy content of one kg FCM (about 730 Kcal).

The NEL content of a feedstuff is related to the energy concentration, i.e. DE/kgDM. The following relationship issued from our experiments,

NEL(Mcal/kgDM) = 0.7DE(Mcal/kgDM)-0.4

The NEL requirement for maintenance of a dairy cow with still feeding is 70W 0.75, and plus 20 percent activity allowance, is deemed enough for a chinese dairy farm.

Crude protein requirements for milk production have been obtained from nitrogen balance studies. These average 85g per kg FCM. A new system of protein evaluation based on the rumen degradable feed pattern is being studied and it may be finished by 1990. A proposal for a new system of protein evaluation was published in 1985: (Feng Yang-Lian.)

We prefer the digestible energy system for the nutrient requirements of pigs. DE requirement for maintenance is 103W 0.75, for growth, 3.5 × maintenance (M) in 20–60 kg growth stage and 2.8 × M in 60–90 kg growth phase.

The nitrogen deposition of 1 growing pig (g/d)

= 1.479 W0.75 - 0.266 W0.75

The efficiency of feed nitrogen is 40 percent in 20–60 kg phase and 35% in 60–90 kg phase.

The ME system has been prepared for chickens. The amino acids, vitamins, minerals and trace elements required by pigs and chickens have been published in feeding standards.

These feeding standards are taken to be scientific instructions and are in widespread use in the compound feed industry and on farms. Feed efficiency appears to be increased by about 20 percent when these standards are used as compared with traditional feeding practices.


The development of a compound feed industry was rapid but compound feeds make up only a small part of total concentrates fed to livestock and it is therefore not sufficient to meet the demands of animal production. I estimate that with the same rapid growth rate in the next ten years, compound feeds may make up 40–50 percent by 1990 and 70–80 percent by 2 000 of the total concentrates fed and the system will be sufficient to meet the needs of the livestock industries.

As protein feeds are insufficient for animal production at present, the production of amino acids could rapidly become a growing industry. Methionine and lysine production is expected to reach 10 000 tons and 6 000 tons by 1990 and 30 000 and 20 000 tons by the year 2000. Premix may attain 0.3 million tons in 1990 and 0.9 million tons in the year 2000. The production of vitamins, trace minerals and other supplements will also rapidly develop.

The size and distribution of a feed factory should depend on the nature of production of feed resources, the systems of the peasant household and the cost of transportation. The small and medium sized feed factories are more suitable for the country.


China Daily (Monday, 11 March). 1985 Industry, farms set economic pace.

Feng Yang-Lian, Zhou Jian-min and Zhang Zhi-wen. Studies on the 1981 requirements of Black and White dairy cattle, Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Pekinensis, Vol. 7, No. 4.

Guo Ji-zong. 1985 Open up a new prospect for feed industry, Feed Research, 42:2–5.

People's Daily (Friday, 19 July). 1985 A new and developing feed industry in China.

Song Ping. 1985 Report on the draft plan 1985 for national economic and social development, Foreign Languages Press Beijing.

Research team for feeding standard of pigs. Feeding standard of pigs. 1983

Research team for feeding standard of chickens. 1984 Feeding standard of chickens.

Research team for feeding standard of dairy cattle. 1983 Feeding standard of dairy cattle.

Table 1: Output of major agricultural products
  1984 (million tons) change from 1983 (%)
Food grains 407 5.1
rice 178 5.5
wheat 88 7.7
soybeans 10 -0.7
Cotton 6 31.1
Oil-bearing crops 12 12.3
peanut 5 21.8
rape seed 4 -2.2
sesame 0.5 33.9
Sugar crops 48 18.9
sugar cane 40 27.4
sugar beets 8 -9.8

Chinese statistical bureau, 1985.

A. Llano

1. The feedstuffs trade

1.1 Imports

In 1985 the concentrate feed industry in Colombia will import about 90 000 mt of sorghum grain, 60 000 mt of corn, 150 000 mt of soybeans, fish meal and almost all microingredients. These imports meet only part of the total requirements, the remainder being met by national production.

1.2 Exports

Colombia does not import or export compound concentrate feeds and does not export any ingredients.

2. The feed industry

2.1 Capacity and output

126 factories are registered at the Colombian Department of Agriculture as producers of concentrate feeds, but three of them only account for almost 50 percent of total national production, and fourteen produce 66 percent of total output.

In 1984, total national production was estimated at 1 516 000 mt distributed as follows: for poultry 65 percent, for swine 20 percent, for dairy cattle 11 percent and others 4 percent.

The installed capacity is estimated at 1 800 000 mt annually, in two shifts of 48 hours a week each shift.

2.2 Quality control

Quality control is exercised by each feed producer under the close supervision of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), which is the government agency responsible for feed quality control.

2.3 Management

Management in the industry varies from high levels of sophistication to rudimentary levels, in which the manager is in charge of buying, formulating and selling.

The difficulty of acquiring enough ingredients and labour relations are the two main problems faced by management in the industry.

2.4 The commercial policy

The Government does not have a policy of subsidizing the industry. On the contrary, it has established minimum prices of basic grains that the industry has to pay to producers, making Colombian feed prices almost double those on the international market. The situation is such that the government earns from imports of ingredients that it controls: e.g. sorghum, grain and corn. For example, the CIF price for sorghum grain is estimated, as of 31 August 1985, at US$ 104 per mt compared with the government established minimum price of US $ 190. Thus, the government earns US$ 86 on this operation. On the other hand, the government has enforced price controls for concentrate feeds as a way to alleviate inflationary pressures on food.

In general, sales of ingredients are made directly to the producers by the industry.

Of the total industry sales to final consumers, 40 percent are made through independent distributors and 60 percent are made directly by the industry.

3. Substitution of imported feedstuffs by local feed resources

In the last few years, the total national output production of basic grains has been reduced in some cases, and in others, it has remained stable, even though requirements have increased. During the same period, 1970–85, imports have increased.

Imports of wheat present an increment of 300 percent over the period 1970–85, while national production has remained practically stable (60 000 mt).

National production and imports of sorghum have increased approximately 500 percent between 1970–85, but, during the last five years, production has remained about the same (600 000 mt) and imports represent a large amount of foreign exchange that the country badly requires for other products it has to import.

As corn is one of the staple foods production has not presented changes in the last fifteen years (900 000 mt) while imports, even though low, are needed every year.

As for barley, production reached its highest level in 1979, and decreased to about half that amount in 1981 and has remained fairly constant since (50 000 mt in 1985). Imports present just the opposite situation: they remained constant between 1979 and 1982, and in the last three years they almost tripled national production levels.

Soybeans, another product controlled by large interest groups along with barley, showed increased production, reaching its highest level in 1983 (120 000 mt) when it was almost 20 percent higher than imports. However, in the last two years, national production decreased by almost 20 percent and exports increased by 40 percent, imports now representing 70 percent of national production levels.

To reduce imports of basic grains, Colombia has two options:

a) Increase output production or

b) Replace part of these grains by the utilization of some traditional and non-traditional feedstuffs.

Colombia has proven the possibility of being self-sufficient in corn, sorghum grain, soybeans and barley. For the first two there has been lack of promotion, and for soybeans and barley production there has been some restraint by beer and vegetable oil producers, since it is cheaper for them to import grains than to buy from national production.

During the last few years the concentrate industry has made great efforts to substitute imported ingredients by the utilization of raw sugar and other non-traditional feedstuffs such as Matarratón (Gliricidia sepium), Aromo (Vachellia farnesiana Acacia), Trupillo (Prosopis juliflora), Canavalia (Canavalia ensiformis) and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala).

Raw sugar: this ingredient has been used since late 1984, and in 1985, with only 8 factories using it, consumption will be about 54 000 mt with a possibility of reaching a volume over 100 000 mt per year, thereby substituting the same quantity of sorghum grain.

Raw sugar presents many difficulties in its handling by the industry as it has a low fluidity in the hoppers, problems in transportating equipment, etc. At present we use the following levels with no probems:

Poultry mash: 15 percent poultry pellets: 12 percent

Swine; including 14 percent molasses: 25 percent without including molasses: up to 50 percent Swine pelletized up to 12.5 percent including 5 percent molasses

Dog feed 10 percent, easily reaching 20 percent.

Matarráton: (Gliricidia sepium) This legume tree has been used in Colombia for many years as a living fence in hot climatic regions and it has a tremendous potential because its dried leaves, are used as a protein source (21–27 percent), and principally to improve egg yolk coloration (see Table 2).

Today, only one feed factory (Solla) is using 300 mt/month, and it is expected that this amount will be increased up to 1 000 mt by January 1986.

Savings as a pigment can be calculated as US$3.00 per mt of layer feed, as formerly 21 g/mt of yellow carophil, plus 13 g/mt of red carophil were used.

Today 3 percent of mashed matarratón leaves are included in concentrate feed, the cost compensating for the cost of the raw materials that it displaces, and 10 g of red carophil are added. Its use is reducing carophil imports, and if used in all layer concentrate feed (870 000 mt) this would mean a direct saving of US$ 2.6 million.

Aromo: (Vachellia farnesiana Acacia) This legume considered as a weed in our hot climatic regions, has been used by cattle growers during droughts as a cattle maintenance ration. In late 1984, a feed mill could buy more than 300 mt from poor peasants, who pick it up with no other cost than their labour. It is calculated that the potential for 1986 is approximately 7 000 mt which would alleviate the pressure on other ingredients, and, ultimately over imports.

Trupillo: (Prosopis juliflora) Wild legume in hot and semi-desertic regions that has partially been used with goats; during 1985 some 100 mt have been purchased and we calculate the potential for 1986 as 6 000 mt/year.

The benefits are the same as with Aromo, and similarly, the maximum levels of consumption have not been determined, since its actual low production makes it unnecessary to include it at high levels.

* As of 31 August 1985

Table 1: Comparison CIF vs. Internal costs (US$ per metric ton * )
  CIF Internal Costs Difference
Soybeans 225 407 182
Barley 132 267 135
Table 2: Nutritive value of 3 legumes used as feed ingredients in Colombia
Common Name Scientific Name H20 Protein Fibre Ether Extract NFE Ash Ca P
Aromo Espino, Espinillo Pela Vachellia farnesiana (Acacia) 12 17.07 14.79 3.52 47.60 5.02 1.3 0.16
Trupillo Southwest Thron Mesquite Prosopis juliflora 12 10.09 13.14 2.98 57.15 4.64 0.31 0.23
Matarraton Cola de ratón Piñón cubano, Nacedera Katavati Gliricidia sepium 8.5 22.54 11.58 14.01 35.77 7.6 1.68 0.24

P.J. George Kunju

Dairying in India

Of India's 700 million people, 75 percent live in 576 000 villages covering 145 million hectares of land. Surveys show that there are 70 million households of which 42% farm on average 2 hectares of land and 37% are landless. These groups possess 55% of all the milch animals and produce, 51% of the total milk in the country. In the early 1900s, dairying in India was largely unorganized. After 1947, the Greater Bombay Milk Scheme came into existence. A milk plant was established in Bombay and was supplied with milk largely by the Kaira district co-op, Milk Producers Union Ltd., Anand. Milk was then transported long distances to supply urban needs for the first time in India.

Establishment of a dairy cooperative managed by the village farmers enabled them to market their milk efficiently avoiding the depredations of the traditional middlemen, who had up to this time been able to monopolize the sale of milk in India. From this time a notable feature of India's dairy scene has been the broad acceptance of a cooperative organizational structure, (Anand Pattern) that now has a great impact on milk production, farm incomes and living standards of the rural people. This revolutionary change has been effected through a dairy development programme called “Operation Flood” which involves 10.2 million rural households. An evaluation committee constituted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India summed up their overall assessment of Operation Flood as follows: “By any standard, Operation Flood has been a successful programme, implemented with competence and dedication, for which the credit should go to the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) and Indian Dairy Corporation (IDC)”. The development of feeding strategies through the establishment of feed manufacturing plants has been of major significance in stimulating milk production throughout the country.

Feeding milch animals

Almost 70 percent of the cost of milk production is directly attributable to feed costs. The most expensive component in a cattle feed ration is the concentrate and the economics of milk production depends on the degree to which the concentrate intake can be minimized and the utilization of crop residues, cut grass and other fibrous materials can be maximized for milk production. Concentrates for lactating cattle and buffalo must be formulated keeping in mind the availability of resources and the total ruminant population in the country. According to the Twelfth All India Livestock census 1977, there are 180 million cattle and 62 million buffaloes in India. The estimated availabilities of feed resources (1985) are given in Table 1. India's indigenous cows (Bos indicus) survive, produce calves on a low plane of nutrition based mainly on coarse roughages such as straws and stovers. The Riverine buffaloes appear to make better use of roughages than cattle and produce milk of a higher fat content. Milk production from cows totals 10–11 million tons per year, whereas from buffalo it is 25 to 30 million tons per year.

The feeding strategies developed under Operation Flood are described below using the Amul Dairy Cooperative as an example.

Amul Dairy Cooperative Union

The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Ltd., Anand is popularly known as Amul. The district is densely populated with 3 million people in 6917 About 80% of the population (where individual land holding is about 2 acres) live in villages and depends on farm produce or farm labour for their livelihood.

Milk animals (mainly buffalo) are fed largely on local crop by-products as the basal feed and average productivity is as follows. Dairy milk yield per buffalo 3.1 kg; lactation period 270 days; calving interval 17 months; annual milk production per buffalo 591 kg.

Traditional feeding system:

In Kaira district, traditionally farmers use cotton-seed meal as the main concentrate supplement for their lactating buffaloes. Since it contains gossypol, they boil cotton-seed meal for 3 to 4 hours before feeding.

Other feed supplements include agricultural by-products such as rice, wheat and sorghum as brans and chunis. However, the bulk of the ration was millet stover. During those days, wheat and rice straw was burnt. The average feed cost for 100 kg. milk production was calculated as $4.66. A typical dairy ration used in the villages for Surli buffaloes (450 kg/weight) is given here. Cotton seed 2.0 kg; grain + byproducts 1.0 kg; natural herbage 5.0 kg; millet stover 4.0 kg; milk yield/day 3.1 kg; fat (%) 8.0.

The total milk procured from the area during the 1950s was around 39,000 kg/day i.e. 14,000 MT/year.

Based on the above ration, there would have been a utilization of around 9,000 MT cotton seed and 4 600 MT sorghum and grain byproducts in a year and a typical farmer used to spend 8.5% of his income to feed his buffalo. The cost of cotton seed meal increased from Rs. 0.21 per kg during 1954 to Rs. 0.34 per kg. during 1960.

The Amul Management was thus motivated to develop more national supplements for dairy animals. Dr. B.M. Patel, Professor of Animal Nutrition, Agricultural Institute, Anand was commissioned to formulate a balanced feed concentrate for milk production based on available resources. The new feed mix increased average milk production and lactation length and was less expensive, saving the farmer, Rs. 70/-per animal per lactation. For this reason Amul management decided to build a feed mill with a capacity of 150 MT/day and this was inaugurated in October 1964. The pelleted feed produced was as follows: maize (40); peanut meal (33); cotton seed (5); cotton seed cake (10); molasses (10); mineral mixture (1); salt (1).

Farmers' reaction:

Pelleted feed was new to farmers and when used for the first time, replacing cotton seed cake, it resulted in a temporary depression of milk fat. Demonstration trials were conducted in villages to convince farmers that milk fat would not be permanently depressed (see Figure 1). Based on the economic benefits of using this feed efforts were made to popularize the new feed among milk producers. Demand for feed has increased and the capacity of the feed plant was increased to 300 MT/day as then, to 600 MT/day capacity in 1981. With increasing demand for the raw materials prices have also increased and more emphasis has been placed on using non-conventional feed ingredients.

Least cost formulation

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has identified more than a hundred unconventional feed ingredients some of which are being used in compound feed (see Table 2). Feeding trials indicated that the digestible crude protein of the compound feed was optional at 14%. A more typical least cost formulation is as follows: milo (10); damaged wheat (10); cassia tora (3); kardi ext. (5); watermelon cake (7); mango kernel ext. (7); groundnut shell powder (2); Acacia aralica ext. (5); Lady finger cake (3); groundnut ext. (8); urea (1); molasses (12); mineral mixture (1); salt (2); calcite powder (1); rice polishings (7); rice bran ext. (16).

Productivity of buffaloes in Kaira following production of a supplement was increased during this period and the annual milk yield has increased (591–1080kg).

Annual milk collection in the Kaira dairy plant was increased from 14 196 MT in 1961 to 127 017 MT in 1976.

Under Operation Flood a total of 38 feed plants have been established to cater for the requirements of balanced cattle feed in all the milk shed areas under the cooperative management area. The total installed capacity of these plants is 4 100 MT/day.

Productivity of buffaloes in Kaira following introduction of a cattle feed supplement was increased from 3.1 to 4.5 kg/d and the annual yield from 591 to 1080 kg. The milk collected annually was increased from about 14,000 MT in 1961 to 127,000 MT in 1976.

The pattern of use of raw ingredients for feed manufacture is shown in Table 3 showing the increasing dependence on non-conventional feed materials.

Urea/molasses animal lick

A seminar conducted by the National Dairy Development Board, to formulate policy on breeding, and feeding strategies for milk production in ‘Operation Flood’, recommended that the objectives must be to utilize crop residues and minimize the reliance on green forage and concentrates. The NDDB accepted a new approach to feeding ruminants based on scientific principles of utilizing non-protein nitrogen to stimulate feed utilization in the rumen and bypass protein to provide amino acids for milk production (see the discussion by Leng in this symposium).

Based on these principles a new feed supplement was developed by the National Dairy Development Board. The new feed supplement is in the form of a lick or block consisting of molasses, urea, protein and mineral mixture. A manufacturing plant, designed by the Dairy Board, has been installed at the Cattle Feed Factory in Kaira District co-op, Anand. This is marketed by the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation, Anand, and is known as AMUL MOL-U-MIN (Urea Molasses Animal lick). This is a hard, 3 kg. solid block. It is kept in the manager of the cow/buffalo to allow the animal to lick whenever it is required. Feeding molasses urea block has resulted in a stimulation of intake of the basal diet by 30% and has resulted in a reduction of the concentrate requirement by 40% without loss of milk production or body weight. Overall there has been an obvious increase in health and reproduction. Some farmers have found it possible to reduce the use of green forage and in some cases milk fat has been increased.

The economics of feeding molasses-urea block is indicated in Figure 6. The data of feeding trials conducted in Kaira district is shown in Table A - comparison of production data before and after introduction of a molasses urea block is shown in Table 3.

By-pass protein

The need to bypass dietary amino acids to lactating animals is being accepted by animal nutritionists. The digestion of starch (or sugar), proteins and even fats in the intestine avoids the heat and methane losses which occur when these nutrients are fermented in the rumen and provide nutrients critical for the production of milk directly (Preston & Leng, 1984). The empirical evaluation of dietary nitrogen as DCP does not take full account of the relationship between energy availability and nitrogen requirements and cannot predict with sufficient accuracy the true availability of protein for production in the body (ARC, 1980). However special processing may be costly and in compound cattle feed, the natural protection of protein meals appears to be high. Thus by using molasses-urea block good quality protein has been replaced by urea and the protein is largely used in the intestine. The composition of the compound feeds aimed at providing bypass nutrients is shown below and is combined with feeding Mol-U-Min.

Bypass protein cattle feed: maize/milo (20); rice polish (10); molasses (8); mineral mixture (1); salt (1); cotton seed meal (20); peanut ext./rape seed meal (15); soya meal (15); guar meal (10).


ARC. 1980 Nutrient requirements of farm livestock and ruminants. 2nd (revised) edition, H.M.S.O., London

ICAR Schemes. All-India Coordinated Research Project for investigation on agricultural by-products and industrial waste material for evolving an economic ration for livestock.

Twelfth 1977 all-India Census 1977

Preston, T.R. and Leng, R.A. 1984 Supplementation of diets based on fibrous residues and by-products. In: Straw and other by-products as feed (Eds. F. SundstØl and E. Owen) Elsevier Press: Amsterdam pp 373–413.

Table 1: Estimated utilization of agro-industrial by-products and conventional feed materials for cattle-feed manufacture in Kaira District
Sr No.PeriodAv.cattle feed prod. M.T.Maize/ Bajra M.T.Cotton seed M.T.C.S. cake M.T.G.N. cake M.T.G.N. Ext. M.T.Rice Bran M.T.GNSP M.T.Water melon cake (MT)Urea M.T.Damaged wheat M.T.
1.1960–65Nil4 5809 160NilNANilNilNilNilNilNil
2.1965–7025 00010 0007502 5008 250NANilNilNilNilNil
3.1970–7545 0004 500Nil1 3503 1504 5007 2001 3501 350Nil2 250
4.1975–8090 0004 500NilNil4 5006 30022 5004 5006 3009009 000
5.1980–85105 000NilNilNil3 1508 40036 7507 3507 3501 05010 500
Table 2: Estimated projection on utilization of different raw materials groups
Sr No.PeriodProduction M.T.Low Prod. High E.High P. High E.Med P. Med EFillers
Qty (MT)Per over prod.Qty (MT)Per over prod.Qty (MT)Per over prod.Qty (MT)Per over prod.
1.1964NA4 580339 16067NilNilNilNil
2.197025 0003 750153 5001414 00056NilNil
3.197545 0006 750154 72510.526 13358NilNil
4.198090 00018 000207 200847 728531 8002
Table 3: The responses on feeding AMUL Mol-U-Min in villages:
Sr. No.VillageMilkFatNet return over feed cost*Net gain (Rs.)
Before kgAfter kgBefore kgAfter kgBefore Rs.After Rs.

* Because farmers reduced the use of concentrates when the urea/molasses block was giventhere was a large saving in concentrate use and milk production was less expensive and theprofit margin increased.

Table 4: The observations at nucleus Jersey farm, Ooty Tamil Nadu after feeding Mol-u-Min for a period of 6 months
MonthsNo. of cows in milkConcentrate (kg)Legume (kg)Green Forage (kg)Hay (kg)Silage (kg)Block (g)Milk (kg)

Source: Dr. Godhanda Pany. Nucleus Jersey Farm, Ooty (Tamil Nadu)

A.N. Said and P.N. Mbugua


Production of compound feeds in a country depends on a number of factors. Some of them are:

  1. livestock population composition and the systems of production;

  2. availability of feed ingredients;

  3. availability and capacity of feed mills;

  4. availability of technology to compound the feed; and

  5. demand for animal products.

Emphasis will be put on use of raw materials produced locally. Equally important prerequisites are the pricing policies on raw materials, compound feeds and animal products, marketing channels and the efficiency of quality control of compound feeds.

Most beef cattle in Kenya are raised under extensive ranching and pastoralism which do not hardly use compound feeds to any extent. A small fraction of beef herds were raised in the better grassland where supplementing with concentrates during the dry season has been shown to improve growth rates (Thomas and Mougua, 1982). Economic returns, however, mitigate against the use of compound feeds in this sector. Efforts to expand beef production under feedlot failed on economic grounds.

In 1980 the estimated beef production was 140 000 tons while the demand was 135 000 tons (Kenya, Ministry of Livestock Development, 1982). By 1990 the demand for beef is estimated to rise to 200 000 tons. To meet this demand structural changes in systems of production have to occur. Amongst the strategies will be to produce more beef in intensive systems increasing the competition for compound feeds with dairy cattle, pigs and poultry (see Table 1).

Sheep and goats are raised in systems very similar to those of extensive beef production. The demand for compound feeds for the small stock is therefore minimal.

The change in land policy after independence in 1963 has meant that dairy production has changed from large systems involving lay farming to small scale involving intensive fodder production often rearing 2–3 dairy cattle. Such a system may have to rely on supplementary feeding to maintain milk production, high so long as there are economic incentives. The trend in dairy production referred to is shown in Figure 1.

Pig production has not shown such great changes. There have however been some large increases in poultry population in the country.

The greatest demand for compound feeds in Kenya is in dairy, pig and poultry enterprises.

2. The feed industry in Kenya

Commercial agricultural production in Kenya dates only from the beginning of this century. When large scale farms were introduced into the highlands, the farmers grew maize, wheat and barley and raised beef and dairy cattle as well as pigs. Farmers used whole grains to supplement animals in the pastures. With cultivation of wheat, the flour milling industry developed. The cereal offals were used for feeding cattle. Feed manufacturers started to produce “Cereal balancers” for pigs and dairy cattle. By 1967, the feed industry was well founded and various types of animal feeds were under production (Adlington, 1970). Now it is possible to obtain all types of livestock and pet feeds and the production of these is shown in Table 3.

The actual feed production, however, falls far below the installed capacity. This could be the real situation or it more probably is understated to evade taxation. Availability of feedstuffs, however, affects the actual feed production. Table 3 indicates 50% of the feed is for poultry. A drop in production was seen in the 1979/80 drought (Mougua, 1984 and Table 3). In the 1983/84 drought, compound feed production came to a near standstill.

3. Availability of feed ingredients

Feed ingredients used in formulation of animal feeds are classified into four major categories:

  1. energy sources

  2. protein sources

  3. ) minerals and vitamins and

  4. additives

The major ingredients that constrain feed compounding are the energy and protein sources. Table 4 shows the range and percentages of ingredients in poultry feeds.

3.1 Energy sources

The conventional energy sources are cereals and by-products such as wheat bran and maize germ meal. Maize is the most important energy source in the Kenyan feed industry but it is also a staple food. The competition between humans and livestock limits the amount of maize available to the livestock sector. In 1981 estimated human requirement for maize was 540 thousand MT while production was 571 thousand MT. The provender milling requirement of 37 thousand MT was therefore not met for that year. The prices of maize germ meal have increased recently because of higher demands for extraction of cooking oils.

Wheat production has been below requirements for human consumption. Almost all the barley produced in the country goes to the brewing industry. Sorghum and millets are rarely used in the feed industry (Maritim, 1983). Sources of energy therefore limit the expansion of the feed industry. Emphasis must, therefore, be placed on the need to identify alternative energy sources (Gomez, 1982).

3.2 Protein sources

The protein sources are oil cakes, fish meal, meat meal, blood meal and meat and bone meal. Extracted oil cakes such as seeds of cotton, sunflower and rape are produced. In large quantities in general oil cakes are about 30–40% protein but are deficient in methionine and this limits their use in poultry diets (Scott et al., 1976). Groundnut seed cake is highly susceptible to mould growth (Aspergillus flavus) producing aflatoxins that limit its use. Cotton seed cake in diets of laying hens frequently causes difficulties because it reduces egg quality. As little as 0.001% of free gossypol in the diet will cause egg yolk discolouration (Scott et al., 1976).

However, rape seed cake contains goitrogenic glucosides and also 3% tannic acid (Scott et al., 1976). This undoubtedly limits its use to 15% of the diet.

Although there is an ample supply of oil cakes, their use in poultry feeds is limited and the country needs to import soyabean meal.

Animal protein sources are of higher biological value than plant proteins (Nesheim et al., 1976). Table 6 summarizes the local production of animal proteins. The current level of local production is low and Kenya has to import fish and soyabean meal. It is estimated that at least 4 thousand MT of fish meal are imported annually.

3.3 Vitamins and minerals

Minerals for mixes such as iron, copper, zinc etc. as well as all the vitamins are imported.

4. Use of local feed ingredients

There is under utilization of some potential feed ingredients available locally. As has been indicated sorghum and millet are in limited supply and not used in feed formulation.

Cassava is another local material that is not used because it is low in protein and entails the use of greater quantities of animal proteins.

Although large quantities of molasses are produced very little molasses is used in feed formulation even though Baustad (1974) has shown that up to 50% of maize can be replaced with molasses in pig rations.

In diets for laying hens caraphyll orange is used for yolk colouration. Any leguminous leaf meal (e.g. alfalfa) can be used in place of caraphyll orange. However little legume leaf meal is produced in the country and perhaps should be encouraged.

Research findings show that soyabean can be grown in Kenya (Thairu and Shakoor, 1985 and Njuguna, 1985). However, this legume is not produced in large quantities. Other feedstuffs that can be exploited are feather meal and poultry byproduct meal (Mougua, 1984) and blood meal. Kayongo-Male (1984) estimates that 2.2 thousand MT of blood meal can be produced annually in the country but the current production is only 1% of the potential.

5. Constraints facing the feed industry

Availability of the raw materials given in Section 3 is not the only constraint facing the feed industry. Other constraints are:

  1. pricing policy

  2. price increases of raw materials and

  3. availability of qualified personnel

5.1 Pricing policy

The raw materials and the compound feeds are controlled under the “general order system” while the animal products are controlled under “Specific order control” (Kenya Ministry of Livestock Development, 1983). This means that prices fixed for the animal products are at times so low that they discourage use of compound feeds. Beef is under price control while eggs and poultry meat are not. This then causes beef to be cheaper than poultry meat and limits the expansion of this industry.

5.2 Price increases of raw materials

In the last ten years, the prices of raw materials have increased at a rate to at least double the price of most ingredients which has reduced the use of compound feeds and indeed lowered levels of animal production. The high feed prices means that the animal products are expensive and often beyond the reach of the majority of the poor people in the country.

5.3 Quality control

The Kenya Standards (KBS) has specified standards for various types of animal feeds which are difficult to implement. The standards which are enforced are those of the finished products whereas no standards are set for raw materials. Since the feed formulators cannot carry out analysis for all raw materials, feed formulators tend to use the data collected in North America or Western Europe which is sometimes a dangerous practice.

5.4 Availability of qualifed personnel

Each feed manufacturing concern should have a qualified animal nutritionist. Few of the provender millers have such personnel. The duties of a nutritionist should be on quality control so as to ensure that the right feed is produced.

6. Substitutes: Accent on perspectives for better use of local feed resources

The potential local feed resources that can be used in compounding feeds have been mentioned. It has been indicated that fish meal and soyabean meal are imported. There is need to investigate the possibility of producing fish meal locally. It has been shown that soyabean can be grown in Kenya (Njuguna 1985). What is needed is to provide the necessary incentives to the farmers to grow this crop.

There are local feed resources that are grown in this country but are not widely used in animal feed compounding. Sorghum and millets are the most important. Production of these crops was 53 thousand MT in 1975 and rose to 146 thousand MT by 1980 (Maritim, 1983). More effort should be expended to increase the production of these grains.

Byproducts of the meat processing industry in particular blood, feather meal and poultry byproduct meal can form an important source of animal proteins. Most of the animals are slaughtered in small slaughterhouses scattered in the country. To enhance the blood meal and poultry byproduct meal production, efficient methods of collecting and processing these materials must be identified.

The degree to which local feed resources will be used in compounding animal feeds will depend on the cooperation between the provender millers, researchers and policy makers. A step in this direction was taken in 1981 with the publication of the Feed Policy in Kenya (Kenya Government, 1981). In broad terms the National Food Policy emphasizes the need for increased food production. Indirectly this means greater uses of local resources.

7. Conclusions

There is a well organized small feed industry in Kenya. Most of the feed ingredients are locally produced. There is, however, need to produce the imported feed ingredients such as fish meal and soyabean meal locally. There is a high potential to utilize locally produced feed resources such as sorghum, millet and molasses. Pricing policies of raw materials, compound feeds and animal products as well as the availability of raw materials are the major constraints in livestock feed production. Livestock feed production must be intensified to meet the domestic demand for animal proteins. This, in turn will best be met by the expansion of the feed industry.


Aldington, J.J. 1970 Animal feeds industry in Kenya; preliminary survey. Institute of Development Studies. University of Nairobi

Baustad, B.M. 1974 Feeding experiments with molasses for growing pigs. Technical paper No. 2. Department of Animal Production University of Nairobi.

Creek, M. 1977 Cost/benefit aspects of the use of by-products and crop residues as animal feedstuffs. Proceedings of the Animal Production Society of Kenya, 10:8–12

Gomez, M. 1982 Nutritional characteristics of some selected non-conventional feedstuffs. Proceedings of a workshop on applied research in Nairobi, Kenya: Ottawa International Development Research Centre.

Kayongo-Male, H. 1984 Use of blood meal in the livestock feeds. Proceedings of the First Kenya National Academy of Sciences Annual Symposium. Eldoret, Kenya.

Kenya Government Sessional paper No. 4 of 1981 on National food policy. 1981.

Kenya, 1982 Ministry of Livestock Development. National livestock development policy paper on poultry feeds.

Kenya, 1983 Ministry of Livestock Development. Policy paper on Livestock Feeds.

Maritim, H.K. 1983 The economics of sorghum processing and marketing in Kenya. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi

Mougua, P.N. 1984 Use of feathermeal and poultry byproduct meal in animal feed in Kenya: Proceedings of the First Kenya National Academy of Sciences Annual Symposium: Eldoret, Kenya.

Nesheim, M.C., 1979 Austic, R.E. and Card, L.E. In: Poultry Production 12th edition Chapter 8: Lea and Febiger Philadelphia.

Njuguna, S.K. 1985. Potential of soyabeans in fulfilling Kenya's protein and oil requirement. Proceedings of American Soybean Association Conference at ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya.

Scott, M.L., Nesheim, M.C. and Young, R.J. 1976 In nutrition of the chicken. 2nd edition Chapters 23 and 28. M.L. Scott and Associates, Ithaca, New York.

Stotz, D. 1979 Small holder dairy development, its past, present and future in Kenya. Ph.D. Thesis: Institute of Agricultural Economics, University of Hohenheim.

Thairu, D.M. and A. Shakoor. 1985 Development of soybean and products in Kenya: Proceedings of American Soybean Association Conference, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya.

Thomas, C. and Mougua, P.N. 1982 Effects of supplements on liveweight gain of beef cattle given forage during the dry season. Proceedings International Grassland Congress, Kentucky, USA.

Were, H. 1974 Potential use of pyrethrum marc in animal feeds. Proceedings of the TPI Conference on Feeds of Tropical and Subtropical origin, London, United Kingdom.

Table 1: Estimated livestock population, 1978 ('000 head)
Cattle10 247
Wool sheep500
Hair sheep6 000
Dairy goats2
Meat goats8 500
Total15 002
Indigenous15 020
Exotic1 760
 16 780

Source: Kenya Ministry of Livestock Development (1982).

Table 2: Percentage ration compositions for beef feedlot
Feedstuff Ration 4 Ration 5
Maize 37 52.8
Forage 50 33.9
Mum* 10.5 11.5
Cotton seed cake 2.7 2.7

Source: Were (1974) and Creek (1977)

* Mum - Molasses Urea Minerals

Table 3: Livestock feed production, 1977–1982 ('000 tons)
Year Cattle Type of feed  
Pigs Poultry Others* Total
1977 43 22 63 8 136
1978 39 22 79 15 156
1979 35 16 65 14 130
1980 34 9 50 12 105
1981 47 12 64 6 129
1982 39 8 62 6 115

Source: Kenya, Ministry of Livestock Development (1983)

Table 4: Composition of poultry rations to meet feeding standards in Kenya
% Feed ingredients Type of feed
Chick mash Grower mash Layers mash Broiler starter Broiler follow-on
Maize 23 9 30 50 57
Pollard 25 10 10 14 4
Maize germ 21 30 25 - -
Wheat bran - 10 - - -
Fish meal 2.5 - 3 9 -
Meat and          
bone meal 2.1 - 4 6.9 8
cake 6 8 4 - 6.9
Cotton seed 10 - - 10 10
Rape seed 7.5 7.5 - 7.5 7.5
Bone meal 0.6 4 - - -
Limestone 1.2 1.2 5.0 1.2 1.0
Salt 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Premix 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.5
Table 5: Production of animal proteins in Kenya (tons)
Factory Feedstuff Year
1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
KMC2 Meat and bone meal - - - 1 629 1 393
Blood meal 73 131 - 38 54
Meat meal 2 866 4 775 - - -
UBF3 Meat and bone meal - - 397 678 459
Blood meal - - 20 20 18

Source: Mbugua (1984)

J. Fanchette

1. Historical background

Mauritius is a tropical island situated about 900 km east of Madagascar. It covers an area of approximately 787 square miles (460 800 acres - 186 483 ha) out of which 48 percent is under agriculture, mainly sugar cane.

The island was discovered in the early 16th century by Portuguese navigators, and eventually colonized in 1721 by the French. Mauritius remained a French colony until 1810 when it was conquered by the British, and the country finally acceded to independence in 1968.

The population of Mauritius and its dependency, Rodrigues, was estimated in 1983 at rough 1 million inhabitants, with over 65 percent of this population below the age of 30.

The climate is generally warm and humid, with temperatures ranging between 14°C on the high plateau in winter and 30°C on the coast in summer.

2. Farming systems in Mauritius

In Mauritius, both the industrial and the traditional farming systems thrive side by side, with a predominance of industrial farming in the poultry and pig sectors and traditional backyard farming in the ruminant sector.

Mauritius was and still is, to a lesser extent, heavily dependent upon imports for the supply of meat and milk to the population, but since the late 1960s the setting up of an integrated broiler industry has given a new impetus to large scale farming and the country has now been self-sufficient in poultry meat and eggs for a number of years.

There has, on the other hand, been a sharp decrease in the cattle population over the past 15 years: however, sustained efforts by the government to boost local meat and milk production are gradually giving dividends and the national herd is now being built up.

Statistics relating to poultry and other livestock production, and to imports and local consumption of meat, milk and eggs are given in the tables.

3. Feedstuffs trade in Mauritius

3.1 Import of compound feeds

The rapid development of the poultry sector resulted in an increase in demand for poultry feed which in turn justified the setting up of a well-structured animal feed industry, thus achieving a step further in vertical integration. In 1977, Livestock Feed Ltd (LFL), a privately-owned feedmill with an installed capacity of over 50 000 tons per annum, came into operation and today this factory produces about 50 different rations for all classes and types of livestock.

It must be stressed that the need for an animal feed industry was felt not only on economic grounds, but also from a strategic standpoint. Indeed, the setting up of a feedmill created automatically a market for feed ingredients which could be produced locally with a view to achieving the maximum economic benefit by maximizing the local added value of the end product.

On the other hand, the stock management of imported feed was becoming more and more difficult in view of the large variety of formulae required and delays for delivery and transport; feed was often several months old when used and this affected efficiency because of resulting quality deterioration. The setting up of a feed industry with adequate stocking capacity for raw materials has made it possible, not only to provide for unforeseen circumstances such as cyclones, labour strikes etc., that used to upset the supply, but also to develop feeds adapted to the local conditions and environment, thus achieving better efficiency.

As a consequence, the pattern of supply of compound feeds changed completely in the years 1977–78, as illustrated by A and B below

A. Imports of compound animal feeds in Mauritius
(Metric tons and CIF Value in Rs)
Year Metric tons CIF Value (Rs)
1970 7 650.2 4 319 350
1972 11 763.1 7 378 480
1974 17 503.9 19 641 480
1976 20 902.1 27 154 939
1978 11 773.1 16 149 115
1980 3 583.3 11 471 374
1982 1 534.1 6 526 006
1984 492.1 3 600 619

Source: Customs and Excise Annual Reports

B. Animal feed production in Mauritius (Metric tons)
  1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984
Poultry 641 3 465 16 148 23 895 24 104 23 262 24 487 26 083 26 087
Cattle 2 609 3 493 3 630 3 692 2 934 2 809 2 522 2 717 2 717
Pig 320 503 635 687 706 1 080 1 053 1 401 1 261
Horse 255 248 281 272 302 254 126 131 83
Others 19 18 59 95 97 255 256 321 452
  3 844 7 727 20 753 28 641 28 143 27 660 28 444 30 653 30 600

3.2 Imports of raw materials

The importation of raw materials has of necessity evolved in an opposite direction to the compound feed imports, thus showing a marked increase after 1977. These imports are listed hereunder.

Cereals:Yellow maize
Oil Cakes:Soybean meal
Cottonseed cake
Groundnut cake
Meals of animal origin:Fish meal
Meat meal
Blood meal
Cereal by-products/brans/fibres:Rice bran
Wheat bran
Maize germ meal
Calcium/phosphorous supplements:Monocalcium phosphate

Vitamin/mineral supplements Additives - including Coccidiostats, Coccidiocides, Antibiotics, growth promoters, synthetic amino acids, antioxidants Mould inhibitors, urea, sodium bicarbonate.

As explained above, the immediate objective in setting up a local feed industry was to improve the efficiency of the feed and achieve security of supply. Taking into account that, by far the largest part of feed produced is for the poultry sector, it is not surprising to note that the raw materials imported are those traditionally used in poultry feeds. It is, however, worth mentioning that part of these raw materials is now produced locally.

3.3 Export of compound feeds

Mauritius is in a very weak situation with regard to export of traditional animal feed. In fact, not only most of the raw materials have still to be imported, and this affects competitiveness with large scale producers, but often it is also difficult to secure adequate shipping facilities to the neighbouring countries. LFL has, however, succeeded in exporting poultry and pig concentrates to the neighbouring islands in 1982–83 but this trade has been temporarily suspended due to lack of transport facilities.

3.4 Export of raw materials

The development of the local feed industry has stimulated the production of substitutes to imported raw materials. The supporting sectors are now developing fast and self-sufficiency has been reached in some cases, for example in the production of limestone powder which is also exported to neighbouring countries.

It is expected that, with the exception of additives and a few raw materials, the feed industry will be supplied with local raw materials to the extent of 80 percent of its requirements within the next 5 to 6 years. This most important aspect is explained in detail in Section 5, which is entitled: “Local raw materials for feed production”.

4. The Mauritius feed industry

4.1 Installed capacity

There are at present 3 animal feedmills in Mauritius:

It is estimated that the total installed milling capacity at national level, based on one shift per day, is around 65 000 metric tons per annum, out of which about 50 000 metric tons goes to LFL.

It is also worth mentioning that, apart from the output of these feedmills, there is hardly any animal feed per se produced on the island, the practice of home-made feeds being virtually inexistent.

4.2 Actual output

The actual output is well below the installed capacity of the local feedmilling industry which was voluntarily over-sized, in view, on the one hand, of the relatively low investment for additional capacity of a feedmill. This long term view has already proved itself right in view of the unprecedented inflation which resulted, not only from the international recession, but also from two consecutive devaluations of the Mauritian currency.

It must, however, be pointed out that the output achieved is well below that forecast, mainly because of the economic recession which affected the trend in demand for poultry, eggs and pork meat.

The demand for animal feed has stagnated around 31 000 metric tons since 1978 but imported feed has gradually been replaced by local production which today meets the entire requirements.

On the basis of the average of the years 1981 to 1984, the market mix for animal feed is as follows:

Type of feed Mean yearly output % share of market
Poultry 24 980 85.1
Cattle 2 691 9.2
Pig 1 199 4.1
Horse 149 0.5
Others 321 1.1
  29 340  

4.3 Management of the animal feed industry

The Government feed factory is part of the assets of the Ministry of Agriculture and is managed by officers within the Ministry.

The other two feedmills are owned by the private sector and operate freely in all respects, except for price control by the Government which has been removed only recently.

4.4 Marketing channels

Each of the three feed factories has its own marketing organization and structure.

The feed from the Government factory goes mainly to the state farms, as mentioned above, and a limited quantity of feed is channelled through the extension service of the Ministry of Agriculture.

Mauritius Farms Ltd., catering mostly for its own needs, has a very limited marketing structure for feed, while LFL covers the whole island and supplies the bulk of the farming community.

It is worth mentioning that, since its conception, the philosophy of LFL was not to disturb the existing marketing structure and the traditional importers were therefore invited, not only to subscribe to the share capital of the Company, but also to handle all the sales and marketing of the Company's products, thus ensuring continuity of their operation and maintaining the traditional distribution network.

4.5 Government policy

Government approach has gradually evolved towards a policy of “laissez-faire” within a mixed economy and one of the effects of this policy has been the removal of Government control over prices and the liberalization of imports. However, Government policy, being also geared towards self-reliance, a certain measure of control over imports is inevitable in order to protect local production from dumping and competition from imported products which are subsidized in their country of origin.

Until very recently, most of the raw materials imported for animal feed were subject to customs duties and import levies, and the feed itself was subject to Sales Tax; this had a very adverse effect on cost of production which could not be passed on to the consumers of the end-products (poultry, eggs, milk, etc.) in view of the elasticity of demand for these products which are themselves exposed to competition from imported substitutes.

Most of these anomalies have now disappeared and, with a few exceptions, the raw materials are now imported free of customs duty and import levy, whereas the Sales Tax on animal feed has been removed.

Pursuing its policy of encouragement to milk and meat production, the Government has also recently introduced incentives, including subsidies to cattle and pig feed, which are definitely receiving the interest of farmers in these sectors.

4.6 Range of feeds now available in Mauritius

At the very start the local feed industry confined its production to types of feed traditionally imported. Gradually, however, not only was the range of feeds offered to farmers enlarged but the formulae for feed production were reviewed and tailor-made for the local conditions. LFL itself produces some 50 different feeds for all classes and types of livestock from chickens to pigs, from horses to fish and prawns, from cattle to cage birds etc.

5. Substitution of imported feeds: local production of raw materials

The Mauritian economy was fully centred on the monoculture of sugar for nearly two centuries and it was only in the 1970s that an impetus was given to the new economic activities, namely tourism and industrialization.

The local sugar industry, which has a worldwide reputation for its efficiency, still forms the basis of the island's economy and occupies most of the agricultural land.

It is therefore difficult to convince the farmers to change from their traditional cultivation, which is sugar cane, to less known crops such as maize, soya etc. It must also be noted that Mauritius is in a cyclonic region, which adds to the difficulty; in fact, due to the resistance of sugar cane to cyclonic conditions, the farmers are even more reluctant to shift to alternative crops.

However, the need for diversification has now been clearly identified and the government is constantly monitoring a vast national food production programme through a high powered committee chaired by the Minister of Agriculture personally, and various incentives, including support prices, are given to stimulate production.

It is encouraging and rewarding to note that the local production of raw materials for the animal feed industry is gradually and steadily increasing; already in 1985 30 percent of the country's maize requirements will be supplied from local production and it is expected that self-sufficiency will be reached within the next 3 to 4 years. (Statistics of local maize production are given in Table 4.) On the other hand, a limestone powder plant has been built which caters entirely for local requirements, while by-products of other industries, including sugar cane molasses, brewer's yeast, pea meal, fish meal etc., also represent valuable raw materials which are being used in the feed formulation.

It is expected that within the next five to six years 80 percent of the raw materials required will be available from local sources and this without taking into account the potential production of protein sources including oil seed cakes.

6. Conclusion

As explained above, the Mauritian animal feed industry in its present state is a fairly young one which has over the years replaced traditional importation of animal feed. It is now gradually fulfilling the second phase of its objectives by substituting local raw materials for imported raw materials, thus achieving complete vertical integration with obvious consequential benefits to the national economy.

Taking into account the relatively low consumption of eggs and poultry meat in Mauritius when compared to other countries (see Table 2), and considering the present trend in the country's economic development, it is expected that the consumption of these products will gradually increase over the coming years, and the feed industry is already prepared to meet the increased demand that will result therefrom.

The acquired technology and experience in a tropical environment represents today a valuable asset to the country and it is expected that an important step forward, abandoning traditional feed formulations will be achieved.

Indeed, as mentioned above, the Mauritius feed industry was, so far, geared essentially towards poultry and pig feed except for a limited quantity of concentrates for cattle. However, taking into account the unlimited availability of sugar cane tops and other by-products, a project based on the commercial utilization of organic waste and sugar cane by-products is being finalized. This project is expected to bring about a fundamental change in the substitution of imported ingredients and a major breakthrough in the milk and beef production sector.

Table 1: Production and sales of chicken meat
  1980 1981 1982 1983 1984
Production (M. tons) 3 714 4 018 3 882 4 285 4 559
Sales (M. tons) 3 361 3 347 4 252 3 894 4 409
Value of sales (Million Rs) 57* 73.8 90.7 91.1 109.2

* Approx

Source: Mauritius Chamber of Agriculture - President's Report

Table 2: Comparative per capita egg and poultry meat consumption (Year 1983)
  Egg (Units) Poultry meat (Kg)
Israel 407.1 41.4
France 242.8 17.3
USA 223.0 29.8
United Kingdom 204.7 14.8
Mexico 126.2 6.7
South Africa 76.3 12.9
Egypt 49.2 5.1
Mauritius (estimated) 30.0 4.7

Source: Poultry International 1984 (except for Mauritius)

Table 3: Value of imports of meat and meat preparations, milk (Million rupees)
Year 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984
Meat and meat preparations 88.4 104.6 104.7 99.8 119.6 115.8 117.3
Dairy products 89.1 124.8 143.3 184.6 228.1 200.4 169.3

Source: Customs & Excise Annual Reports (adapted)

Table 4: Local maize production (Metric tons)
(Maize dried at 12% moisture)
Year Production
1980 732
1981 1 081
1982 1 375
1983 1 195
1984 3 265
1985 5 000 (estimated)
Table 5: Mauritius livestock census (1983)
  Small breeders Large breeders Livestock breeding stations TOTAL
Male 4 179 2 150 266 6 595
Female 11 741 6 105 1 044 18 890
TOTAL 15 920 8 255 1 310 25 485
Male 25 339 25 113 25 537
Female 46 879 51 229 47 159
TOTAL 72 218 76 342 72 696
Male 211 265 27 503
Female 378 1 094 62 1 534
TOTAL 589 1 359 89 2 037

Source: Mauritius Chamber of Agriculture - President's Report 1983/84.

K. El Shazly

Human resources in Arab Nations of the Near East

The total population of the Arab Nations in 1980 was 162 million. The working population reached 43 million with more or less similar distribution intensities in the different zones. Twenty-four million are engaged in agriculture (56% of the working population).

Agricultural production as a percentage of GNP varies greatly among Arab countries but averages 20%, the highest being for Somalia (60%) the lowest for Saudi Arabia (1%) and Libya (2%).

The total exports of the Arab Nations in 1980 were 157 billion US$, 93% of which were mainly by Arab Nation exporters of oil.

The agricultural exports were only 3 billion dollars worth representing 2% of total exports. Egypt, Morocco and Sudan exported at 56% of the rate of the total exports.

Animal production - relative importance

As in most developing countries the Arab countries have a large number of animal units with low productivity. The total number of cattle in the Arab Nations was estimated at 677 million units in 1980, with 65% situated in the middle zone (Egypt, Somalia and Sudan - see Table 1).

Animal feed industry

In 1980 there were 500 feedmills in the Arab Nations with only 15% of these in the Middle Zone, 44% in the East Zone, 33% in the West Zone and 8% in the Arab Peninsula.

These mills produced 7 million tons per year although they have the capacity for producing about 15 million tons.

The nutrient requirements

For estimating the requirements of animals in the Arab world it was assumed that 40% of the herd are mature animals, 40% at 1–3 years of age and 20% are calves. Accordingly, animal units were calculated in Table 4.

The requirements were calculated assuming an animal unit is equivalent to a milking cow weighing 300 kg and giving 1 000 kg of milk with 5% fat. Thus according to Morrison (1957) this animal unit requires 1.1 – 1.2 tons TDN and 100 kg digestible protein. The total requirements for the total animal units were estimated at 81.3 million tons TDN.

The poultry industry has developed considerably in almost all of the Arab world. In 1980 the total number of broilers were 754 million, laying hens, 55 million and parent stock 10 million. The different zones seem to have similar numbers.

Animal feeds

Forages and by-products availability was estimated to be 166 million tons dry matter in 1980.

Poultry requirements

Poultry requirements were estimated at: 3.5 kg compound feed for broilers during the period of fattening, 55 kg compound feed/year for laying hens, 75 kg compound feed/year for mothers. Therefore, the total requirements of poultry in the Arab Nations was estimated to be 6.4 million tons of compound feed, 47% for laying hens, 41% for broilers and 12% for mothers.

Animal feed resources in the Arab Nations

The total agricultural area in the Arab world is 50.6 million hectares representing 3.67% of the total area. The land is mostly dependent on rain and only a small area is dependent on irrigation.

Sugarcane and beet molasses are produced in the Arab World but are not fully utilized. It has a relatively high TDN value.

Poultry feed balance

Comparing the feed requirements for poultry production and the produced and imported feed annually, a deficit of 2.9 million tons of grains, 0.65 million tons of compound feeds and surplus of 72 thousand tons of oil meals were reported for 1980 for Arab Nations. A total deficit of 2.62 million tons of TDN were estimated for the year 1980.

Ruminant feed balance

A deficit of 8.9 million tons TDN was estimated for ruminants in the Arab Nations. The Middle Zone had a surplus of 4.8 million tons of concentrate feeds (Table 7). A total deficit of TDN for ruminants and poultry was estimated at 12 million tons.

Industrial requirements for animal and poultry feeds

It was estimated that poultry feed requirements were 6.0 million tons per annum. However, if the present capacity of the feedmills were to be realized, there will be no deficit.

On the other hand, the total requirements of all animals are 86.1 million tons of TDN; 4.8 million tons TDN are the total requirements for poultry. Only 4.0 million tons of concentrate feeds are available locally and 3.4 million tons are imported which leaves 2.6 million tons TDN for ruminants (3.7 million tons of concentrate feeds). Only 2.6 million tons are being manufactured thus leaving 1.0 million tons.

If all present mills were to work to full capacity they could produce 6.5 million tons compound feeds with a surplus of 2 million tons.

Three alternative systems of feeding were suggested for general milking cows and buffaloes and for ruminant feeding in general whereby compound manufactured feeds could be used at 10%, 15% or 20% of the total requirements.

The future plans for developing the compound feed industry in the Arab Nations were suggested by a consultancy group for the Arab Organization for Industrial Development, AOID, Baghdad (1983) based on three dimensions:

  1. Increasing concentrate feed milling capacity in the Arab world to meet animal requirements;

  2. Efficient utilization of by-products from the agroindustry;

  3. Establishing a National Technical Training Centre

To increase the concentrate feed capacity based on the first alternative (10% concentrate feeding), 7.4 million tons should be manufactured, or 12.5 million tons for the second alternative (15% concentrate feeding) or 17.7 million tons for the third alternative (20% concentrate feeding). This should require 51 mills, 86 mills or 120 mills in addition to the present zones. 70% of this milling capacity should be in the middle zone, 14% in the West zone, 9% in the East zone and 7% in the Arab Peninsula.

Near East animal industry development up to the year 2 000

The population of the Near East (including Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Cyprus) was 224.45 million. The estimated consumption of red meat, white meat, eggs and milk (fish not included) was 3.02, 0.978, 0.802 and 16.7 million tons per year. They provide 17.3 g protein/person/day. (FAO 1982, Production Year Book gives a value of 16.2 g protein/day/person.)

In the year 2 000 the population should reach about 370 million.

To receive the same level of animal protein (16.2 – 17.3), they will be expected to consume about 5, 1.6, 1.3 and 2 million tons of red meat, white meat, eggs and milk respectively.

However, one could visualize an animal protein consumption rate of 24 g/day/person which is still below the recommended minimum animal protein requirements of 29 g/day/person. If we calculate the animal products required at that level (24 g/day/person), keeping the same distribution rates of the different sources we reach the values of 7, 2.3, 2.0 and 40 million tons of red met, white meat, eggs and milk.

Assuming the following mode of production per unit: 160 kg red meat/head; 1.5 kg white meat/broiler; 200 eggs/laying hen; 3 000 kg milk/milking cow or buffalo.

By the year 2 000, the animal population of the Near East should follow the following pattern: 46 million animals for meat production; 1 596 million broilers for white meat production; 197 million laying hens; 14 million lactating cows (or buffaloes); 7 million followers.

Requirements expressed in TDN and in Feeds (concentrates and roughages) are given in Table 7. It could be calculated that the total requirements for the producing animals by the year 2 000 should amount to 10 million tons of TDN or to 156 million tons of concentrate compound feed with an average TDN value of 65%. The requirements for roughages were estimated at 97 million tons of TDN or 165 million tons of dried roughages assuming an average TDN value of 55%.

Assuming an average production of 6 tons of TDN per acre, it could be calculated that 16 million acres forage land should be made available in the Near East.

It will be noticed that the ratio of roughage to concentrate is about 50:50. However, it is possible to visualize other possible systems with more roughage consumption than compound feeds a system closer to 65:35 as exists in the USA.

However, the compound feed industry would require 1 444 mills by the year 2 000. Each mill will produce 30 tons/hr or 108 000 tons in 300 days by working two shifts a day.

It is recommended:

  1. The Governments of the Near East should develop better cooperation and integration among themselves. Regions which have possibilities of producing more concentrate feeds such as Sudan, Somalia, Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan, Iran, should aim at increasing the number of feedmills. Other nations of the region could contribute to establishing such an industry in these countries, which could cover the requirements of the whole region and may be allowed for export to other regions.

  2. It is suggested that the newly established mills should have three lines of operations:

    1. Grinding, mixing and pelleting

    2. Treatment of poor quality roughages to improve their nutritive value

    3. Extraction of leaf proteins from forages and water weeds such as water hyacinth

    The reason for such a complex operation is obvious. There are certain shortages of grains due to low productivity in the area. Therefore, use must be made of by-products from the agro-industry which may require some physical, chemical or microbiological treatment to raise its nutritive value. Such methods have been developed and could be exploited on the farm or industrially where accumulation of by-products are available. Improvements of up to 30% of the nutritive value have been reported.

    Naturally, certain supplements need to be included, e.g. minerals, urea, proteins, vitamins, ionophores, which would give a nutritionally balanced final product.

    There are two important reasons for having a line for extraction of leaf proteins:

    1. Some of the forage proteins are soluble and easily degradable in the rumen. They are lost to the nitrogen economy of the ruminant animal

    2. They could be readily extracted and represent a good protein supplement to poultry, pig and calf rations. They have a high biological value almost comparable to that of soybean. Experiments at Alexandria University using berseem leaves or water hyacinth leaves showed that they could replace 50% of the fish meal protein in the ration without affecting the nutritive value. They were also successfully utilized in starter meals for early weaned buffalo and cow calves.

  3. Programmes for improving forage production by examining the total digestible nutrients per acre as criterion for their improvement should be undertaken. Newly reclaimed land areas should be cropped with forages.

  4. Improvements of the genetical constitution of the animals is an important factor for the development of the animal and feed industry. Thus the efficiency of feed utilization could be improved.

  5. Integration of animal production with crop production to recycle all wastes and by-products.

Table 1: The number of farm animals in the Arab Nations in 1980 (× 1 000 units)
 West Z.East Z.Mid Z.Arab Pen.Ar. N.
Cattle5 490212 5861016 964651 106426 14639
Buffalo--194101 76890--1 9623
Sheep8 500433 729196 157311 359719 74529
Goats2 4602574584 986511 558169 74914
Camels1 36313.4360.48 311824244.210 13415
Total17 813267 2901138 186564 447767 736100

1 cow = 0.7 unit, 1 Buffalo = 0.8 unit, Camel = 1 unit, Sheep = 0.2 unit, Goat = 0.166 Unit

Table 2: Agricultural and animal production imports to the Arab Nations in 1980
(million US$)
 Agric importsAnim. prod importsAnim. prod % of agri. imp.
Algeria1 75628516
Saudi Arabia3 58891526
Iraq1 5152622
Egypt1 86829415.7
Yemen, P. Dem. Rep.107109
Yemen, Arab Rep.1879953
Total14 5183 60825
Table 3: Roughage feeds in the Arab World 1980 (× 1 000 tons DM)
Grazing area15 945124 1443103 547788 9237132 55980
Green forages2 212163 948297 25152449313 8608
Straw & stover4 776294 581284 966311 8741216 19710
By-products of vegetab. & fruits1 474411 79250180512743 5732
Sugar industry by-products10220671333667--505-
Total24 5091514 5329116 2806911 3737166 694100
Table 4: Animal concentrate feeds in the Arab Nations in 1980 (× 1 000 tons)
Grains99866652436356251 26321
Oil meals1127183111 347803621 67829
Brans5933057630683359851 95033
Concent. mix. for poultry17593----1471893
Concent. mix. for rumin.12883----27171553
 1 263211 439252 8944932155 917100
Table 5: Imported concentrate feeds to the Arab Nations in 1980. (× 1 000 tons)
Grains1 464451 237382066358113 26568
Oil meals28044162251432255964014
Concent. mix for poult.100483014--78382084
Concent. mix for rumin.16668----79322455
Total2 067431 429303798900194 775100
Table 6: Poultry compound feed requirements in the Arab Nations (1979–1981)
Broilers (× 1000)167 25580 814222 343283 352753 764
Broiler feeds (× 1 000 tons)5852837789922 638
Layers (× 1 000)17 2187 57215 62414 87055 284
Layer feeds (1 000 tons)9474168598183 040
Mothers (× 1 000)2 4453002 3445 02410 113
Mother feeds (1 000 tons)18022172369743
Total feeds1 7127211 8092 1796 421
Table 7: Ruminant feed balance in the Arab Nations (1980) × 1 000 tons TDN
Animal units7 2904 44738 18617 81367 736
TDN Requir.8 7485 33645 82321 37681 283
TDN Available     
Roughages6 7734 70447 84310 48269 802
Concentr.3851401 3388202 583
Total7 1584 84449 18111 20372 385
Balance TDN- 1 590- 492+ 3 358-10 147- 8 898
Compd. Feed     
70/TDN- 2 471- 703+ 4 797-14 534-112 711

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