Field Document 90/01



25–28 September, 1989


Wilfredo G.Yap

Directorate General of Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture

With the assistance of

Jepara, Indonesia
August, 1990

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

This Proceedings is the English version ofProsiding Lokakaraya Industri Budidaya Udang which is the result of the Shrimp Culture Industry Workshop held on 25 –28 September 1989 at the Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Centre, Jepara, Indonesia. This Workshop is one of the activities of the Shrimp Culture Development Project, INS/85/009, a project of the Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia, funded by the United Nations Development Programme and executed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Copies of this Proceedings as well as of its original version in Indonesian may be requested from:
The Librarian
Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Centre
P.O. Box 1
Jepara, Indonesia


Indonesia is one of the world's major shrimp producing countries. However, very little literature in English is available on the status of Indonesian shrimp industry for those in the world fisheries community who might be interested in knowing more about its status, problems and prospects, as well as the frustrations and the aspirations of the people involved in the industry. It is for this reason that this project endeavoured to make this English version of the original workshop proceedings available.

The said workshop was attended by a cross-section of the shrimp industry from farmers and large-scale producers to researchers and extension officers. This proceedings can therefore be considered a fairly comprehensive body of updated information on the status of the Indonesian shrimp culture industry.

As much as possible the translation was made to reflect the style of presentation of each writer within the limits of English grammar and syntax, which is one reason some of the passages may sound stilted. Names of institutions, government projects and programmes and their abbreviations were maintained in Indonesian because often there is no standard English equivalent, and use of an English equivalent might make it difficult to identify the actual institution referred to. However a glossary of the Indonesian meaning of the various abbreviations together with their English translation is provided for easy reference.

This translation was made possible, first of all, due to the keen interest of my counterpart in the Project, Dr.Made L. Nurjana, Head BBAP Jepara. The copious help of Mr. Budiono Martosudarmo, National Pond Culturist, INS/85/009, in explaining the context of certain words or phrases as they were used by the various writers contributed in no small way to the completion of this translation. Due to time constraint, it was not possible to back-translate the entire translation to ensure greater accuracy. However this was done selectively by Ms. Indah Wulani, Project Secretary, INS/85/009, on certain sentences or phrases which were somewhat obtuse in meaning. She also patiently entered into the computer my hand-scrawled translations, many of which were written under less than ideal conditions such as airport waiting rooms, etc. Many of the staff in BBAP in Jepara also assisted in confirming that the English technical terms used in this English translation were indeed what certain specialized words were meant to be. To all of them, Terima kasih banyak!

W.G. Yap,
CTA, INS/85/009
Jepara, Indonesia, 1 August 1990

Proceedings of The Shrimp Culture Industry Workshop


APBNAnggaran Pendapatan Belanja Negara
 State Budget
AUPAkademi Usaha Perikanan
 Fisheries academy
BALITDITABalai Penelitian Budidaya Pantai
 Coastal aquaculture research centre
--------Bapak Angkat
 Literally “foster father” in the sense of large companies guiding and supporting
BAPPEDABadan Perencana Pembangunan Daerah
 Regional body for planning and development
BBAPBalai Budidaya Air Payau
 Brackishwater aquaculture development centre
BBPMHPBalai Bimbingan dan Pengujian Mutu Hasil Perikanan
 Fishery product quality testing and guidance centre
BIMASBimbingan Massal
 Mass guidance supervised credit programme for food production
BKPIBalai Ketrampilan Penangkapan Ikan
 Fish capture skills centre
BLPPBalai Latihan Penyuluhan Pertanian
 Agriculture extension training centre
BPLPBalai Pendidikan Latihan Pegawai
 Government employees training and education centre
BPNBadan Pertanahan Nasional
 National land body
GBHNGaris-garis Besar Haluan Negara
 Broad guidelines of state policy
 Working together or helping each other achieve a common goal
HGBHak Guna Bangunan
 Right to use a building
HGUHak Guna Usaha
 Right to operate a business
HIPPERINDOHimpunan Pengusaha Perikanan Indonesia
 Organization of entrepreneurs in fisheries industry
HMHak Milik
 Property rights
INTAMIntensifikasi Tambak
 Programme for tambak intensification
 Regency, administrative level below province
KANWILKantor Wilayah
 Regional office
 Subdistrict, administrative level below regency
KEPPRESKeputusan Presiden
 Presidential decree
KHUTKelompok Hamparan Unit Usaha Tani
 Grouping of contiguously located farms
KIKredit Investasi
 Capital investment credit
KIKKredit Investasi Kecil
 Small investment credit
KMKKredit Modal Kerja
 Working capital credit
KMKPKredit Modal Kerja Permanen
 Permanent working capital loan
KUDKoperasi Unit Desa
 Village cooperative unit
KUPEDESKredit Usaha Pedesaan
 Village enterprise credit
LITBANGPusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan
 Research and Development Centre
NPWPNomor Pokok Wajib Pajak
 Tax account number
OPSUSOperasi Khusus
 Special operation (or programme)
P4Pedoman Penghayatan dan Pengamalan Pancasila
 Programme to promote understanding of Pancasila
PELPengkajian Evaluasi Lingkungan
 Regulation requiring the evaluation of the environment
PELITAPembangunan Lima Tahun
 Five-year development
PILPengkajian Informasi Lingkungan
 Regulation requiring the provision of environmental information
PIRPerusahaan Inti Rakyat
 Nucleus smallholder scheme
PPPeraturan Pemerintah
 Government regulation
PPLPenyuluh Pertanian Lapangan
 Field extension agent
PPSPenyuluh Pertanian Spesialis
 Agriculture extension specialist
PPUPPenyuluh Pertanian Urusan Programa
 Agriculture extension Programmer
PPUWPusat Pembenihan Udang Windu
 Shrimp hatchery centre
PTPerusahaan Terbatas
 Limited liability company
PUSKESMASPusat Kesehatan Masyarakat
 Community health centre
RDKRencana Definitif Kelompok Tani
 Definitive schedule of farmers' group
RDKKRencana Definitif Kebutuhan Kelompok Tani
 Definitive schedule of farmers' needs
REPELITARencana Pembangunan Lima Tahun
 Five-year development plan
RRIRadio Republik Indonesia
 Government radio broadcasting system
RTPTRumah Tangga Perikanan Tambak
 Tambak household
--------Sapta Usaha Pertambakan
 Seven fundamentals for tambak operation
SDSekolah Dasar
 Elementary school
SMTASekolah Menengah Tingkat Atas
 Senior high school
SMTPSekolah Menengah Tingkat Pertama
 Junior high school
TABANASTabungan Pembangunan Nasional
 Savings scheme for national development
 Brackishwater pond
TIRTambak Inti Rakyat
 Nucleus estate tambak development scheme
TPKTempat Pelayanan Koperasi
 Service centre for cooperatives
TVRITelevisi Republik Indonesia
 Government television broadcasting system
UPBAPUnit Pelaksana Budidaya Air Payau
 Brackishwater aquaculture implementation unit
UPTUnit Pelaksana Teknis
 Technical implementation unit


This Proceedings is a compilation of the papers and the reports of the working groups in the Shrimp Industry Workshop that was conducted by the Directorate General of Fisheries through BADC Jepara in cooperation with the Shrimp Culture Development Project FAO-UNDP INS/85/009 that was held in Jepara in 25–28 September 1989. This Proceedings consist of three sections namely:

  1. Workshop Committee report, session reports and working group reports;
  2. Main papers; and
  3. Background papers.

This Proceedings is being published in two languages, Indonesian and English.

It is hoped that this Proceedings shall be useful to all parties.

Jepara, December 1989
Balai Budidaya Air Payau Jepara

Dr.Ir. Made L. Nurdjana

Hyperlinks to non-FAO Internet sites do not imply any official endorsement of or responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to non-FAO sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software. FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.







Opening/Closing Ceremony

Opening remarks of the Chairman of the Organizing Committee
Welcome address of the Head, BADC Jepara
Keynote address of the Director General of Fisheries
Closing remarks of the Chief Technical Adviser, FAO - UNDP INS/85/009
Report of the Organizing Committee

Plenary Sessions

Session One
Session Two
Session Three
Session Four

Group Reports

Group One: Research and Development
Group Two: Smallholder Development
Group Three: Industry Needs

Workshop Output


Status of Shrimp Production in Indonesia
Untung Wahyono

Status of the Shrimp Hatchery Industry in Indonesia
Made L. Nurdjana and Aninidiastuti

Technical Constraints in Shrimp Culture and How to Overcome Them
Alie Poernomo

Indonesian Shrimp Quality Problems in Relation to Market Needs and Their Solutions

Developing Shrimp Feedmills in a Depressed Market Situation
Sutanto Hardjolukito

World Shrimp Market Situation and Outlook
Fatima Ferdouse

Towards an Envorinmentally Oriented Shrimp Culture Industry
Purwito Martosubroto and Rubimin Wibisono

Shrimp Culture Training and Extension
S. Muranto

Research Programme of the Coastal Aquaculture Research Centre in Support of Shrimp Culture
Fuad Cholik

Socio-economic Condition of Tambak Farmers in Indonesia
Firial Marahudin

Procedures for Loan Issuance to the Economically-disadvantaged
Wasi Kirana


Experiments on the Polyculture of Seaweed, Shrimps and Milkfish
I. Nengah Sutika and Syamsu Alam Ali

Experiments of Lobster Propagation
M. Natsir Nessa and Aspari Rachman

The Shrimp Culture Subcentres as Regional Centres for Brackishwater Aquaculture
Noor Hamid

Tambak Intensification from the Farmer's Point of View

Experiences of Traditional Tambak Farmers in the Culture of Tiger Shrimps in Java
Budiono Martosudarmo

Pest and Disease Management in P. monodon Culture
Arief Taslihan and Anto Sunaryanto

Use of Supra-tidal Land for Intensive Shrimp Farming
Wilfredo G. Yap

Shrimp Hatchery Technology in East Java
Nyan Taw

Some Considerations in Shrimp Culture Operation in Indonesian Tambaks
Bambang Ranoemihardjo

Fresh Anchovies (Stolephorus sp.) as an Alterna tive Supplemental Feed in P. monodon Nursery Ponds.
Iin S. Djunaidah, Kasnadi, Yahya and Sugianto

Shrimp Industry Development in East Java
East Java Provincial Fisheries Office

Shrimp Feed Development
I Putu Kompiang