# Converting factors

Converting factors shown in Tables 2 - 5 have been approved for the use of FAO by two international conferences on forest statistics, held in Washington and Rome in 1947.

These factors are averages, adopted by agreement. However, if any country considers that serious errors in the conversion of its statistics will arise through use of these standardized factors, FAO will be prepared to use specific factors recommended by that country in converting its statistics.

A. - GENERAL MEASURES

Table 1. - STANDARD UNITS1

 LENGTH 1 centimeter = 0.3937 in. 1 inch = 2.540 cm. 1 meter = 3.281 ft. 1 foot = 0.3048 m. 1 meter = 1.094 yd. 1 yard = 0.9144 m. 1 kilometer = 0.621 mile 1 mile = 1.609 km. 1 yard = 3 feet = 36 inches 1 mile = 1,760 yards = 5,280 feet AREA 1 cm² = 0.155 sq. in. 1 sq. in. = 6.452 cm² 1 m² = 10.76 sq. ft. 1 sq. ft. = 0.0929 m² 1 km² = 0.3861 sq. mi. 1 sq. mi. = 2.59 km² 1 hectare = 0.003861 sq. mi. 1 sq. mi. = 259 ha. 1 hectare = 2.471 acres 1 acre = 0.4047 ha. 1 square kilometer = 100 hectares 1 square mile = 640 acres VOLUME 1 cm³ = 0.061 cu. in. 1 cu. in. = 16.39 cm³ 1 m³ = 35.31 cu. ft. 1 cu. ft. = 0.02832 m³ 1 liter = 61 cu. in. 1 cu. in. = 0.01639 liter 1 liter = 0.2642 gal. (U.S.) 1 gal. (U.S.) = 3.785 liters 1 liter = 0.2200 gal. (Imp.) 1 gal. (Imp.) = 4.546 liters 1 liter = 1,000 cm³ 1 gallon = 4 quarts MASS 1 kilogram = 2.205 pounds 1 pound = 0.4536 kg. 1 metric ton = 1.102 short tons 1 short ton = 0.9072 metric ton 1 metric ton = 0.9842 long tons 1 long ton = 1.016 metric tons PRESSURE 1 kg. per m² = 0.2048 lb. per sq. ft. 1 lb. per sq. ft. = 4.882 kg. per m² 1 gm. per cm² = 0.0142 lb. per sq. in. 1 lb. per sq. in. = 70.31 am. per cm² DENSITY 1 kg. per m³ = 0.06243 cu. ft. 1 lb. per cu. ft. = 16.02 kg. per m³ OTHER 1 m²/ha. = 4.356 sq. ft./acre 1 sq. ft./acre = 0.2296 m²/ha. 1 m³/ha. = 14.29 cu. ft./acre 1 cu. ft./acre = 0.07 m³/ha

1 Inches, feet, yards, and miles are U.S.A.: British units.

B. - FOREST PRODUCTS MEASURES*

Table 2. - WEIGHTS

 Product Unit Average Weight Shipped by Rail Kilos per Cubic Meter Pounds per Cubic Foot Kilos Pounds1 Sawlogs conifers 1,000 board feet 3,300 7,300 650 41 Cubic meter 650 1,400 650 41 broad-leaved 1,000 board feet 5,100 11,000 975 61 Cubic meter 975 2,100 975 61 Pulpwood Cord 1,300 2,900 500 31 Stere 350 770 500 31 Fuelwood-mixed Cord 1,800 4,000 700 44 Stere 490 1,100 700 44 Pitprops Fathom 2,700 6,000 620 39 T & T Poles 1 piece-European 110 240 650 41 Sleepers conifers - Type A2 1 piece 62 140 620 39 conifers - Type B2 1 piece 52 110 620 39 broad-leaved - Type A2 1 piece 90 200 900 57 broad-leaved - Type B2 1 piece 75 170 900 57 Sawn lumber conifers 1,000 board feet 1,200 2,600 520 32 Standard 2,400 5,300 520 32 broad-leaved 1,000 board feet 1,700 3,700 730 46 Standard 3,400 7,500 730 46 Plywood Italian and French Cubic meter 500 1,100 500 31 Austrian, Polish, and Czech Cubic meter 650 1,400 650 41 Other Cubic meter 650 1,400 650 41

1 Calculated from the equivalent number of kilos. Since the figures are approximations and pounds per cubic foot are shown only to two figures, this result may not agree with the result obtained by multiplying pounds per cubic foot by the equivalent number of cubic feet.

2 Type A sleepers average 10 pieces to the cubic meter; Type B, 12 pieces to the cubic meter.

* Conifers (softwoods) include all woods derived from trees which are classified botanically as gymnosperms. Broad-leaved (hardwoods) includes all woods classified botanically as angiosperms. The species belonging to this group are generally broad-leaved.

Table 3. - ROUNDWOOD

 Product Unit1 Solid Volume without Bark Cubic Meters Cubic Feet Roundwood (general) Cubic meter 1 35.3 Cubic foot 0.0283 1 Load 1.13 40.0 Sawlogs 1,000 board feet 4.53 160 1,000 super feet 100 pulgadas 4.81 170 Pulpwood Cord (128 cubic feet) 2.55 90.0 Stere conifers 0.75 265 Raummeter Russian fathom 6.80 240 Fuelwood Stere (conifers) 0.70 24.7 Stere (broad-leaved) 0.65 23.0 Cord (128 cubic feet) 2.12 75.0 Russian fathom 5.66 200 Charcoal Wood Metro linear 0.71 25 Pitprops Fathom (216 cubic feet) 4.46 158 T & T Poles North America 1,000 linear feet 15.4 545.0 1 piece 0.43 15.2 Europe 1 niece (conifers) 0.165 5.83

1 Units are grouped opposite the products for which they are most commonly used, but certain units are applicable to a variety of products.

Table 4. - PROCESSED WOOD

 Product Unit Solid Volume Roundwood Equivalent Cubic Meters Cubic Feet Standard Cubic Meters Cubic Feet Sawn lumber and hewn wood Standard 4.672 165 1 7.79 275 1,000 board feet 2.36 83.3 0.505 3.96 140 1,000 super feet Load 1.42 50.0 0.303 2.36 83.3 100 pulgadas 2.36 83.3 0.505 4.81 170 Cubic meter 1 35.3 0.214 1.67 59.0 Sleepers Load 1.42 50.0 0.303 2.58 91.1 piece-Type A1 0.10 3.53 0.0214 0.182 6.43 piece-Type B1 0.083 2.93 0.0178 0.142 5.00 Laths 1,000 pieces 0.195 6.9 0.042 - - Shingles 1 square 0.16 5.6 0.034 0.453 16.0 Plywood Thickness 5 mm. 1,000 square meters 5.00 177 - 12.5 441 Thickness 10 mm. and over Cubic meters 1 35.3 - 2.5 88.3 Thickness 3/8 inch2 1,000 square feet 0.885 31.2 - 1.11 39 Veneers, broad-leaved Average thickness 1/10 inch 1,000 square feet 0.235 8.3 - 0.473 16.7

1 Type A sleepers average 10 pieces to the cubic meter; Type B, 12 pieces to the cubic meter,

2 Equivalents for 3/8" plywoods are based on production of softwood plywood from large logs on the west coast of North America.

Table 5. - PULP AND PAPER

 Product Unit Wood Pulp Content Roundwood Equivalent Cubic Meters Cubic Feet Wood pulp- Mechanical Metric ton (air dry) 2.55 90 Chemical Metric ton (air dry) 5.04 178 Newsprint paper Metric ton 0.13 tons chemical pulp and 3.00 106 0.92 tons mechanical pulp Paper other than newsprint Metric ton 0.68 tons chemical pulp and 3.65 129 0.09 tons mechanical pulp Building boards (fiber) Metric ton Average mechanical pulp about 0.62 tons 1.6 56 Paper other than building boards Metric ton 0.32 tons chemical pulp and 1.8 63 0.07 tons mechanical pulp

FAO Member Nations
October 1947

AUSTRALIA
AUSTRIA
BELGIUM
BOLIVIA
BRAZIL
BURMA
CHILE
CHINA
COLOMBIA
COSTA RICA
CUBA
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
DENMARK
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
EGYPT
FINLAND
FRANCE
GREECE
GUATEMALA
HAITI
HONDURAS
HUNGARY
ICELAND
INDIA
IRAQ
IRELAND
ITALY
LEBANON
LIBERIA
LUXEMBOURG
MEXICO
NETHERLANDS
NEW ZEALAND
NICARAGUA
NORWAY
PAKISTAN
PANAMA
PARAGUAY
PERU
PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
POLAND
PORTUGAL
SIAM
SWITZERLAND
SYRIA
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
UNITED KINGDOM
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
URUGUAY
VENEZUELA
YUGOSLAVIA