Special needs for fertilizer, machinery, and pesticides

Forest policy
Systematic forest management
Forestry, forest products, and rural welfare
Forest products and living standards
Forest research
Forestry education
Forest-products research and utilization
Integration of forest industries and reduction of waste
Third world forestry congress
Implementation of recommendations
A world forest policy

Urgent need exists for more fertilizer, machinery, and pesticides. In many parts of the world adequate supplies of these materials, appropriate to the local need, would be of very great benefit to agricultural production and diversification.


1. Immediate action is urged on the recommendation of the Technical Committee on Agricultural Production' of the Interim Commission, that "FAO consider conducting an immediate survey of postwar needs for fertilizer' of available supplies of raw materials, and of the adequacy of facilities for fertilizer processing. This should include consideration of the number and extent of wartime expansions in fixed nitrogen plants and other chemical plants suited for fertilizer production and of plans for their postwar use. If found desirable, FAO might initiate international discussions looking to the development of programs for the adaptation of these plants to production of fertilizer on a scale adequate to meet the world-wide needs of an expanding agriculture."

In addition, a survey should be made of the agricultural requirements, the estimated manufacturing capacity, including the possibility of developing the natural fertilizer resources and processing facilities, and the supply position in each country.

During the immediate period of urgency the surveys should cover only those fertilizers which are in short supply. Consideration should be given to the way in which output of fertilizers in short supply can be increased.

Cognizance should be taken, not only of the potential fertilizer demand for efficient production, but also of the ability of farmers, under prevailing conditions, to make use of fertilizers.

For the long-run period the surveys should include needs for all plant nutrients, including the minor elements. An estimate should be made of projected needs in the light of the anticipated expansion in volume of agricultural production and anticipated increases in efficiency. Surveys should take into consideration the type of soil and its present conditions and such factors as size of farm, farm practices, kinds of crops, and alternative uses of land.

The information collected should be made available to Member governments and, in turn, should be relayed to fertilizer industries so that production can be expanded accordingly.

2. It is recognized that another urgent aspect of the fertilizer problem is to provide fertilizers at such low cost that they can be more generally used. It is recommended that FAO, through its Member countries, investigate ways and means of reducing costs by simpler formulas, greater concentration of fertilizer strength, and other means.

The purchasing power of farmers in any country should not be the sole determinant in setting a production objective for fertilizers. Therefore, it is suggested that FAO assist in the development of schemes whereby credit or subsidies may be provided to facilitate the distribution of supplies. FAO should also consider a study which may indicate where additional fertilizer plants might be established.

3. FAO should promote the necessary educational and advisory work among farmers with regard to the efficient use of fertilizers according to the type of soil and other conditions prevailing on their farms.

4. FAO should survey the manufacturing capacity, the estimated needs, and the supply position of farm machinery and implements. This survey should also consider the geographical location of the plants, and where additional plants might be established.

During the immediate period attention should be given to the urgent needs of a country in relation to the kind of farming. size of farms, and the needs of the farmers. Increased attention should be devoted to designing implements and machines that are sufficiently simple and inexpensive to bring them within reach of greatly increased numbers of farmers. This need is particularly urgent for sizes and types of farms that are not now mechanized to a significant extent.

During the long-run period the should consider the needs of countries in terms of potential agricultural development as well as the type of farming, size of farms, and any other relevant factors.

5. Through its Member countries, FAO should investigate all possible ways and means of lowering the costs of agricultural machinery to farmers.

6. In the period immediately ahead, FAO should Survey estimated needs and manufacturing capacity for, and the supply position of, insecticides and fungicides.

Because of their urgency and somewhat special character the problems of war-torn countries and of countries in tropical and subtropical regions are here specifically outlined, even though many of the problems are touched on or included in other more general recommendations.

Special needs in war-devastated areas


1. Direct assistance by FAO

(a) In order that more complete information may be made available regarding the extent of war damage to agriculture and agricultural processing facilities in devastated countries, it is recommended that scientific and comparable methods of evaluating such damage be worked out by FAO.

(b) In view of the complete black-out of scientific progress in devastated countries during the war, it is recommended that FAO encourage the holding of regional conferences at which scientists of advanced agricultural institutes will review scientific findings developed during the war with scientists of devastated countries. The latter will then be equipped to relay the latest developments in science to professional leaders of their respective countries.

(c) Owing to the dearth in devastated countries of literature on agricultural and nutritional progress during the war period, it is recommended that FAO promote the preparation of a handbook which will set forth war-period findings in these fields for the information and use of agricultural and nutritional scientists in war-devastated countries.

(d) Owing to the destruction of laboratory and scientific equipment and of libraries of colleges and research institutions in war-devastated countries, and in view of the dearth of trained leadership in agricultural work, it is recommended that FAO make an appraisal of the respective needs of those countries and that information about such needs be made available for consideration by institutions, foundations, and other agencies in a position to assist in the rebuilding and re-equipment of laboratories and libraries, and in the granting of international scholarships.

(e) In view of the importance of the reconstruction of rural life in devastated countries, FAO should deal with the urgent problems of such reconstruction and should arrange for a special conference on this subject at an early date.

(f) Owing to the need for adequate market facilities in a world reoriented for agricultural production according to newly accepted principles it is recommended that FAO encourage the development of agricultural markets to assist devastated countries in gaining a standard of living for their farm people in keeping with principles enunciated by FAO.

2. Assistance that FAO may promote by suggestion to other agencies
(a) In v few of the inadequate capital now available for rebuilding the agriculture of devastated countries, it is recommended that the Director-General explore promptly with appropriate financial authorities and with interested Member nations the possibility of developing measures to secure more adequate credits as soon as possible, both to aid agricultural reconstruction directly and to help in the restoration of agricultural credit institutions in countries where they are unable to function adequately.

(b) Owing to the parallel nature of activities of UNRRA and FAO in appraising needs for supplies and methods for meeting them, it is desired that close collaboration of FAO and UNRRA be maintained as long as UNRRA continues to function, especially in regard to materials such as equipment, livestock, and other commodities necessary for a reconstituted agriculture in devastated countries and in regard to the provision of adequate transport facilities.

(c) In view of the probable termination of the good work undertaken by UNRRA, it is recommended that FAO give consideration to the development of continuing activities designed to assist in the reconstruction of devastated countries, especially in rural welfare fields not covered by UNRRA's activities.

(d) Owing to the destruction and removal from devastated countries of farm equipment and livestock and the impossibility of securing fertilizers and pesticides during the war, it is strongly recommended that FAO draw the attention of competent authorities to the need of giving the necessary priority in the allocation of shipping space for the delivery of such materials, in order that devastated countries may not be hampered in reconstruction.

Special needs in tropical and subtropical areas


1. Immediate needs

(a) In order to provide the necessary stimulus to the countries in these regions, they must be assured of a fair and equitable price for their products. FAO can assist the various countries within these regions by sending out special missions, if so desired by governments, to study and advise on this problem.

(b) FAO can render a very valuable service in the equitable distribution of agricultural machinery and fertilizers, both of which are likely to be in short supply in the immediate future. FAO should suggest the pooling of available supplies and their distribution on an equitable basis to all countries, keeping in mind the special needs of the tropical and subtropical peoples, the majority of whom have been more or less starved of these supplies during the war years. Without these two essential tools of production, it will be extremely difficult for these countries to step up production.

(c) The organization and improvement of extension services is urgently needed. FAO should collect information on the various methods of extension adopted by countries throughout the world and make it available to the tropical and subtropical regions, particularly through special missions to study the problem on the spot and recommend accordingly. The social pattern of peoples in these countries must be considered in developing useful educational services so they may be adapted to local religious and social customs.

2. Continuing programs

Since the immediate needs cannot be sharply distinguished from the long-term requirements of these countries, the three recommendations made above are likewise applicable to the long-term period. In addition, the following special requirements of these regions should be considered in plans for the long-term period:

(a) Urgent need exists for technical staffs. Talent is not wanting but facilities for necessary training of leaders are needed. FAO can help these countries arrange for the necessary facilities for training the required personnel, including postgraduate study, and for the exchange of technicians.

(b) Where countries within these regions require the services of trained personnel, FAO could assist in securing such personnel.

(c) Expert help and guidance from FAO is needed in the tropics and subtropics for the organization or extension of research institutions. This could be done by sending out special missions of experts if required, to advise the nations in this work and by promoting coordination among institutions devoted to tropical and subtropical researches.

(d) A pressing problem in the tropics and subtropics is the lack of suitable agricultural machinery. Machinery at present available is not necessarily suited to requirements. It is recommended that FAO promote research work in evolving and testing machinery suitable for these areas and particularly for the needs of small holders. (For instance, little or no attention has so far been paid to the evolution of machinery suitable for wet-rice cultivation.) The field here is enormous and FAO can render valuable service in promoting research in this direction.

(e) In the tropics and subtropics, the cultivators do not have employment through the entire year. Their incomes are, there fore, low and if they are to be fed properly these incomes must be raised by employment over the major part of the year. One approach to this problem is the development of agricultural or other suitable industries, particularly on a local village or cottage basis. A study by FAO of the methods adopted by various countries in promoting such industries and making available the results of such studies to the various countries concerned would be of considerable help. Special missions for the purpose might be more helpful than the more collection of information through governmental agencies. Some tropical areas are, however, under-populated and the populated areas are so widely scattered that transportation costs are very high. In such places, expansion of industry to promote purchasing power may not be practicable and, if attempted, might cause a lack of manpower for agriculture at critical times.

(f) Water and land resources in tropical and subtropical countries have not been fully developed, and efficient land management practices, consistent with soil improvement and conservation, are not adequately understood or used. FAO should collect all available information on practices for the efficient use of water and land and make this information available to the various governments concerned. Special studies should be made of the legislation adopted by different nations for this purpose. Such studies should be carried out through special missions.

(g) Marketing of agricultural produce on a rationalized basis is of the utmost importance if the people in the tropics and subtropics are to get the full benefit from their labors. Cooperative buying and selling should be encouraged, and FAO can assist in this by supplying experience gained by other nations in this field.

(h) Improved credit facilities are needed. FAO could assist such nations as may require credit facilities through advice to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

(i) The majority of the countries in these regions export one or more commodities to other regions of the world. FAO could assist in indicating to the exporting areas the standards of quality required by importing nations, thereby enabling the exporting countries to market their production on the basis of accepted grades.

(j) Many of the countries in the tropics and subtropics suffer from pests and diseases of crops and livestock which are common to more than one nation. In many cases, the control of such pests and diseases, especially migratory pests like locusts, requires concerted action.

(k) Agricultural statistics in many of the countries in the tropics and subtropics are very deficient and what information is available is usually unreliable. Correct statistics are a necessary basis for improvement programs. It is recommended that FAO help in organizing adequate statistical services in all countries within the tropics and subtropics.

(l) Since many people in tropical countries can best improve their diet by growing protective foods themselves, it is recommended that FAO give attention to educational programs on home production for those who cannot get protective food through external trade.

(m) In the tropics and subtropics storage, preservation, and processing of agricultural commodities are of the utmost importance. Here, FAO may render useful help by giving necessary advice through missions of experts.

(n) Assistance in securing shipping facilities for the export of agricultural products from these regions would be highly advantageous.

(o) In order to encourage the greater use of agricultural machinery, fertilizers, and other agricultural necessities for better production of food, FAO should bring to the attention of governments all ways for making these materials and supplies available as cheaply as possible.

(p) FAO should consider the great need for regional offices in the tropics and subtropics in order to he in the closest touch with the countries in these regions.

Addendum: supplementary report on general agricultural services of FAO

Activities carried on by the headquarters staff of FAO are only a small part of the services which the Organization will provide to Member governments. To fulfill its tasks, FAO will not require a large staff of technicians and scientists. It will need to mobilize and make use of the accumulated knowledge, talents, and skills of the leading scientists and technicians of the world in the solution of problems presented to it. This can be done by using personnel on a temporary or consulting basis, often with little or no compensation. Thus in a very real sense the staff of FAO will include these people as well as its own employees.

A large staff of scientists and technicians not only would be a heavy financial burden to FAO but would also create a tendency for the organization to become an individual research agency. Further, scientists working within FAO might lose essential contact with current research work.

Some of the more important ways in which FAO can make its services available to Member governments are outlined below.

Compilation and dissemination of technical and scientific information

FAO should serve as an international clearinghouse of technical and other information in the field of food and agriculture. In its publications it should include surveys of particular regional or worldwide problems and summaries of significant scientific developments. It also should assemble and make available world-wide summaries of legislative enactments and policies relating to food and agriculture. It should publish, or arrange for the publication of, annotated bibliographies and abstracts and make available on request microfilm and photostatic reproductions of important documents. In carrying on this work FAO should cooperate with existing bibliographic and abstracting services. In cooperation with national and international bodies, FAO should take appropriate steps to facilitate the systematic distribution of reports, reprints, bulletins, and similar material produced by individuals and agencies other than FAO.

In planning this work, it is suggested that the Director-General set up, as early as possible, a small committee of experts, including representatives of existing agencies, to survey and make recommendations on the form of cooperation possible.

This matter should receive a high priority, especially for countries where technical services were interrupted by the war or where they have not been developed.

Roster of experts

In cooperation with national and international scientific and technical societies and with Member governments, FAO should make arrangements to have available current lists of competent scientists and experts in its fields of interest in the various countries who could be helpful in recruiting personnel for special assignments and missions to advise governments, educational and research institutions, and other international organizations.

The rosters should include complete documentation as to the technical qualifications and experience in various geographical areas of persons whose names appear on them.

Special missions

Many of the recommendations relating to agriculture can be successfully undertaken only by persons with expert knowledge and with experience acquired in other projects of a similar nature. Consultation on the spot between qualified experts and officials of the interested countries is essential. The services of such experts, individually or organized in missions, should be made available by FAO to governments. The use of missions, however, should be properly safeguarded by FAO and they should be sent only upon request and after the need for them is clearly indicated through appropriate questionnaires or surveys to determine local conditions. Advanced planning of the necessary follow-up steps to develop the work should be arranged, and missions should remain long enough to carry out such plans. Generally, missions should be small and made up of distinguished and experienced experts in each particular problem, temporarily loaned from other institutions for the purpose.

Careful distinctions need to be made between reconnaissance surveys, which might be conducted by only one person to determine in a broad way the needs of an area or country, and a mission of technical experts to set up, for example, an extension service, a production program, or a research organization.

Special standing committees of scientists

The Constitution of FAO provides for standing committees of experts in the major fields of FAO's work. In addition, it might be advisable to have smaller committees competent to deal with some of the subdivisions of major fields; or alternatively, some of the standing committees might organize special subcommittees. Such committees would cooperate with national and international societies in such matters as standardizing nomenclature and methods. They would advise with the Director-General and the FAO staff upon research problems, new methodology and techniques, interpretation and application of experimental results, and related problems in the natural and social sciences.

Where practicable, such committees should be established in cooperation with or through international professional societies, such as the International Society of Soil Science in the field of soil management and conservation.

International conferences of experts

From time to time FAO will find it desirable to convene conferences of experts, including extension specialists, to consider special problems, exchange information, formulate programs, or deal with other matters with which FAO is concerned. These conferences might be national, regional, or worldwide in scope. In arranging for and scheduling such conferences, FAO should work in cooperation with governments and with appropriate national and international scientific and technical organizations.

In this matter, as in others, FAO should promote and assist international societies on a cooperative basis, for example, by assistance in scheduling meetings, and should avoid duplicating their activities.

Cooperation with other international bodies

FAO should be concerned with the successful discharge by other international agencies of the specific functions assigned to them in so far as they impinge upon or affect the objectives of FAO. For e example, FAO is the proper international agency to advise the projected International Bank for Reconstruction and Development regarding the suitability for financial assistance of particular projects that have a bearing, direct or indirect, on food and agriculture, forestry, or fisheries.

FAO should immediately establish direct working relations with such emergency agencies as UNRRA and the Emergency Economic Committee for Europe so that the experience and data of these agencies may be utilized by FAO. When their work is finished, FAO can, if it seems desirable, carry on whatever continuing international agricultural programs they have begun that are appropriate to the functions of FAO.

Exchange of personnel between countries

FAO should assist Member governments in the exchange of scientists, educators, students, farmers, and farm workers to promote wider understanding of the nature of agricultural problems in the various parts of the world, and to promote the use of available knowledge and techniques in the solution of these problems.

FAO might consider suggesting to governments that the various countries grant international scholarships for advanced study in the various universities and special institutes.

Specialized research and teaching institutes

FAO should encourage and promote the establishment of specialized programs for teaching and research in appropriate colleges, universities, and other institutes that may serve the needs of specialists from many countries. Such programs may be specialized as to subject matter or regions.

D. Forestry and forest products

THE need for public action to ensure continuous productivity of existing forests and to establish forests on desert and other treeless areas creates a situation in which the Food and Agriculture Organization can be particularly useful to Member governments.

Public safeguards have been afforded the majority of European forests but for the far greater portion of the world no safeguards exist, and in such countries governments will undoubtedly seek assistance in coordinating their public control activities before destructive processes result not only in the loss of forests but in severe damage to the soil.

The problem of the world's undeveloped forests - especially those within tropical regions - presents a unique opportunity for FAO. These are the most heavily forested portions of the earth's surface. They represent the world's greatest remaining wood reservoir; they produce a far greater assortment of non-timber products, especially food, than any other forest region.

They also offer a temptingly rich prize to destructive exploitation and in a very real sense constitute a challenge to FAO, since it is the only existing organization capable of assuming leadership in bringing about their protection. FAO may play a decisive role in assisting and encouraging governments to adopt policies of conservative exploitation over these vast areas and avoid a repetition of the wasteful and destructive methods of the past with the inevitable antisocial results that follow.

Forest policy

Since public policies are a major factor in determining the fate the education of the general public and of forest owners must form an essential part of any broad forestry program. FAO can materially assist the nations in this educational work.

Large-scale utilization of forests and the establishment of large forest industries, especially in the underdeveloped areas, often will be financed, in part, through loans by private or public international lending agencies. Good management of woodland on farms and other small holdings may be furthered and the owners' income increased through various forms of cooperative action. In both of these fields FAO can function as a clearinghouse of information.


1. For early action
(a) FAO should collect compile, and disseminate information as to forest policies of Member nations and furnish advice and guidance as to forest management measures which properly may be required on public and privately owned forest land.
2. Other recommendations
(a) FAO should compile and disseminate to Member governments educational material and information on educational techniques used by other nations, and should itself originate material such as motion pictures, exhibits, posters, and other devices for educating the public and the forest owner on the importance of forests and forestry in the general economy.

(b) FAO should encourage Member governments having large areas of undeveloped forest to formulate policies leading to their immediate protection against destructive exploitation and to adopt scientific management. It should investigate forest management practices which have proved most satisfactory in the exploitation of these areas.

(c) FAO should be prepared to advise private and public international lending agencies as to the technical and economic soundness of projects for which loans may be sought. It should usually advise against loans for projects that will result in destructive exploitation of these forests and usually favor those which will prevent it.

(d) FAO should serve as a clearinghouse of information on forest cooperatives and keep Member nations currently informed on developments in this field.

Systematic forest management

The war has had both direct and indirect consequences upon the growing stock of the forest of many nations. Directly it has damaged and destroyed certain forest areas within the theaters of war; indirectly it has brought about serious forest depletion in many countries through emergency overcutting. In restoring this growing stock without causing serious disruption to the reconstruction program, FAO can play an important part.

In regions where in the course of centuries forests have been wholly or partly destroyed, as in southeastern Asia and the Middle East, the restoration of forests is one of the indispensable steps toward soil improvement, efficient agriculture, and higher nutrition levels for almost a thousand million people. In helping solve the afforestation problems of Member governments, FAO should take an active part.

There are other necessary steps that must be taken by nations before forest management can be intelligently applied. In many countries forest taxation is an important deterrent to adequate forest practices on privately owned or held forest lands. Land classification is also an essential step, and here too FAO can effectively assist Member nations.


The Committee on Forestry recommends that FAO should take action in the following manner:

1. For early action
(a) FAO should investigate immediately the extent of forest depletion caused by war and assist the affected Member nations in coordinating their efforts to rebuild their growing stock and increment.

(b) FAO should immediately begin to assemble world-wide information on methods, costs, suitable species and seed sources, and other data needed by governments desiring to afforest desert and other bare lands.

(c) FAO should at an early date initiate a comprehensive study and analysis of forest taxation laws and policy and be prepared to supply information and advice to governments on request.

(d) FAO should take the necessary steps to be ready to establish at its next Conference Session international standards for the certification of tree seeds and planting stock.

(e) FAO should assemble all information on developments in forest management during recent years and disseminate this material to Member nations.

2. Other recommendations
(a) FAO should be prepared to send missions to advise nations in afforestation projects and should keep Member nations currently informed on developments in new techniques and use of equipment and with the names of available experts.

(b) FAO should collect and disseminate information on the techniques of land classification and assist Member nations by making known the names of experts in this field.

Forestry, forest products, and rural welfare

In many countries there is a close relation between the existence and management of adequate forest areas and the success of agricultural crops. Afforestation has transformed the Landes in France from an area of swamps and sand dunes? Poverty-stricken and unhealthful, into a land of prosperity where agriculture e flourishes behind the protecting forests. In India the lack of fuel over large areas has resulted in the use of cowdung as fuel, the land has been deprived of the manure which it would otherwise receive, soil fertility has decreased' crop yields are low, and general poverty and a low standard of living have resulted.

Forests are an asset in the raising of livestock, but uncontrolled grazing and lopping often lead to forest destruction. This is particularly true of the Mediterranean countries and of large tracts in Africa and central Asia. In these regions some control of grazing is a necessity. In many countries mere regulation of grazing will recreate the natural forest; grazing. better cattle, better milk supply, and improved health and stature will result - an upward spiral of prosperity instead of a downward spiral of poverty.

If uncontrolled grazing has been a potent source of forest devastation, shifting cultivation is as bad or worse. Again, however, it is uncontrolled shifting cultivation that is so harmful. Like grazing, cultivation can be controlled and woven into a system of forest management.

Forests are also indispensable in mountainous areas to prevent soil erosion and for watershed protection. Afforestation is a vital factor in desert control, and although the deserts of the world are still advancing this advance can be arrested by proper afforestation.

In all countries a sound economic policy calls for a balance between forests, agriculture, and other economic activities. A prerequisite to this in some countries is the provision of equipment and the construction of access roads for forest exploitation and industries. Equipment is urgently needed in (1) countries which have suffered from the war, (2) developed countries which have never had modern equipment, and (3) underdeveloped countries, especially in the tropics, which have never had equipment of any kind.

To develop and maintain forest industries a labor force is required. If an adequate number of sufficient quality is to be obtained, the wages and living conditions of forest laborers must compare favorably with conditions in the cities.

Farm woodlots are an important factor in rural economy. Apart from the cash received by the farmer as a laborer in forests during the off season, woodlots can be of value to him as windbreaks, for fuel and small timber supply, and as a source of raw material for cottage industries. But the difficulty is to ensure proper management to prevent disappearance of the woodlots in the hands of unskilled or improvident farmers. A solution has been found in Scandinavian countries and in Switzerland by a system of cooperative management with state assistance and sometimes state control.


The Committee recommends that FAO take action in the following manner:

1. For early action
(a) FAO should study world needs for forestry equipment, give advice on the most suitable technical equipment, and assist countries through proper channels to acquire what they need.

(b) FAO should collect and disseminate information on technical and other improvements achieved for forest workers in different countries concerning house construction, camp arrangement, hygiene! local education, medical facilities, etc., in order to be ready to advise governments.

2. Other recommendations
(a) FAO should collect information on grazing and lopping and their effects, shifting cultivation and its control, floods and soil conservation and the control of deserts, and be prepared to arrange for missions of experts where necessary.

(b) Legislation already exists in certain countries guarantee the protection of forests on watersheds. On this and on all the subjects under 21a), FAO should collect and disseminate information both of research results and of advances in management, and should build up advisory services to assist governments.

Forest products and living standards

Acceptable standards of living for rural and urban populations cannot be obtained by improvement in nutrition alone. Satisfactory shelter, fuel for heating and cooking, and pulp products for education and other purposes are equally essential.

The availability of adequate supplies of forest products has a direct bearing on standards of living. Nutritional standards, sufficiently accurate for practical purposes, have been established for many regions and occupational groups, but the need for similar standards relating to consumption of forest products has been recognized only recently.

Increased production of agricultural products entails, and is helped by, increased consumption of forest products for shelter for more livestock, for new granaries, for additional fencing, and for innumerable other purposes. Improved distribution of food requires the use of more wood and other forest products in the extension and improvement of transportation systems, while vast quantities of box boards and pulp and paper containers must be provided for the protection of food in transit.

The best way of arriving at basic requirements for forest products needed to attain the desired standards in food production, shelter, education, and sanitation, is to make an appraisal of the consumption of forest products on a per caput basis, by countries, by regions, and by occupational groups.

The work recommended for FAO in this field is in the nature of a series of long-term studies and need not be undertaken during the organizational period.


1. FAO should make a survey of per caput consumption of forest products, with an appropriate subdivision by countries, regions, and occupational groups. Techniques must be developed as the work proceeds. The data collected in this survey should be correlated with any other studies that aim at evaluating standards of living.

2. FAO should develop minimum standards of consumption of forest products for comparable groups.

Forest research

At many centers, forestry research could be rendered more productive if better information were available as to the nature and scope of similar work already done or in progress elsewhere. Comparison of research programs could lead to elimination of unnecessary duplication and to mutually helpful adjustments.

Forestry research organizations have already united to bring research workers together, to further the coordination of research methods, and to organize cooperative research projects. Further development on these lines would be helpful.

Efficient and up-to-date abstracting and translation services are essential to research workers in all countries but are not at present adequate to meet all requirements. There is frequently much delay in applying valuable research results to practice.

Many countries will need the assistance of experts in establishing and equipping new research centers, or in carrying out special projects.


1. For early action
(a) FAO should make a survey of all organizations engaged in research in any branch of forestry or in any field having a direct bearing on forestry. This survey should record the nature and scope of work covered by each organization, and its personnel, and should be published for general circulation among research workers. The survey should bring out the need for additional provision for research in some fields of work or regions; FAO should encourage the filling of any such gaps.

(b) Surveys should be undertaken of the present state of knowledge in special aspects of forestry, notably those of current importance and interest, such as the regeneration of tropical rain forests. Expert advice may be called for in carrying out such surveys.

(c) Glossaries should be prepared in the principal languages, listing and defining all technical forestry terms in general use, and these glossaries should then be combined.

2. Other recommendations
(a) Steps should be taken to facilitate comparison of research programs with a view to such measure of coordination as would minimize unproductive.

(b) FAO should approach the organizations that give abstracting services with a view to negotiating mutually helpful arrangements to ensure full coverage. Arrangements should likewise be made for any necessary translation.

(c) The results of research should be published promptly in the form best calculated to come to the notice of those in a position to apply them in practice.

(d) FAO should maintain contacts with and assist in coordinating the research work of professional forestry societies.

Forestry education

Progress in forestry and utilization of forest products will be impossible without larger numbers of adequately trained men in the forests and factories. Many new forest areas are likely to be opened up. Forests already in use will be more intensively managed as utilization improves. The constantly increasing uses to which wood is put require more trained specialists in wood utilization. Trained foresters are needed to rehabilitate forests that have deteriorated from overexploitation, war damage, or lack of skilled management; large-scale programs of reforestation and afforestation will call for many qualified technicians.

Not only are greater numbers of foresters required, but their training must be more diversified and of a higher standard than hitherto.

While there are numerous excellent schools of forestry, many of the existing schools are inadequately staffed and equipped, and in some parts of the world where schools are most needed there are none.

Too few professionally trained men are at present employed in privately owned forests.

To complement and make effective the work of highly trained specialists, large members of additional skilled workers, both in the forests and in industry. are required, and facilities for training are urgently needed.


1. For early action
(a) A comprehensive survey should be made of the existing institutions offering professional education in forestry and in the utilization of primary forest products, including their facilities for meeting the special requirements of privately owned forests and of forest-products industries. This survey should include institutions giving subprofessional training.

(b) FAO should advise in the replacement of libraries or books destroyed during the war and in securing the material which has not reached the forest schools during the war years.

2. Other recommendations
(a) Advice should be available on the establishment of new forest schools, the drawing up of curricula, the provision or training of teaching staff, the acquisition of teaching materials, and other related matters; and similarly on the further development of existing schools.

(b) FAO should collect and disseminate information on the establishment and development of training facilities for skilled workers in forests and forest-products industries.

(c) Exchange of teaching staff between educational institutions and provision of facilities for travel should be promoted in order to ensure continuous contact with forestry practice and research.

(d) FAO should advise on the building up of libraries for new schools and the enlargement of existing libraries.

(e) Regional conferences of forest schools should be arranged for the discussion of such matters as minimum standards of professional training.