NACA/TR/85/12September 1985
Training Manual
Shrimp Hatchery Design, Operation and Management


P.Kungvankij1, L.B. Tiro, Jr.,2 B.J. Pudadera, Jr.,2
I.O. Potestas2, K.G. Corre2, E. Borlongan2, G.A. Talean2,
L.F. Bustilo2, E.T. Tech2, A. Unggui2, T.E. Chua1

Regional Lead Centre in the Philippines
Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center

1 Food and Agriculture Orginations of the United Nations
2 Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center

Bangkok, Thailand
September 1985

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1. Introduction

2. Selecting suitable sites for a hatchery

2.1 Criteria in the selection of a suitable site for hatchery

3. Hatchery design and construction

3.1 Size of hatchery

Small-scale hatchery
Medium-scale hatchery
Large-scale hatchery

3.2 Hatchery facilities

Maturation tank
Spawning tank
Larval rearing tank
Nursery tank
Live food culture tank
Water storage and filtration tank
Seawater supply and piping system

3.3 Lay-out and construction

4. Life cycle

4.1 Wandering type
4.2 Borrowing group

5. Preparation of Broodstock for spawning

5.1 Conditioning of broodstock
5.2 Induced Maturation
5.3 Maintenance of broodstock in maturation tanks
5.4 Sampling

6. Larval feed

6.1 Preparation of larval feed

Phytoplankton culture
Rotifer culture
Brine shrimp as larval feed
Preparation of processed fresh tissue of acetes, clams and mussels
Preparation of dry acetes diet
Preparation of egg custard

7. Preparation of facilities for spawning, hatching and larval rearing

7.1 Tank facilities
7.2 Water quality and supply
7.3 Aeration
7.4 Filter box

8. Selection of spawners and egg collection

8.1 Procurement and transportation of spawner
8.2 Treatment of spawner
8.3 Spawning activity
8.4 Egg collection and treatment

9. Hatching and transportation of Nauplii

9.1 Determination of hatching rate
9.2 Transportation of Nauplii

10. Larval rearing

10.1 Larval rearing in small indoor tanks
10.2 Lartval rearing in large nursery tanks

11. Routine hatchery management

11.1 Maintenance of water quality
11.2 Feed and feeding schemes
11.3 Monitoring

12. Nursery of post-larvae

12.1 Concrete tank
12.2 Earthen pond
12.3 Nursery cages

13. Harvest and transportation of larvae


Figure 1. Cross-sectional of 12 tons ferrocement broodstock tank

Figure 2. 250-liter fiberglass spawning tank

Figure 3. Cross-sectional detail of 2.5 tons ferrocement larval rearing tank

Figure 4. Detail of lay-out, cross-sectional of 40 tons concrete nursery tank

Figure 5. l-ton fiberglass tank utilized for algae culture

Figure 6. Typical gravity and filter system

Figure 7. Water storage and filtration tank

Figure 8. Roots Blower

Figure 9. Direct seawater intake

Figure 10. Seawater intake through sumpit

Figure 11. Centrifugal marine pump

Figure 12. Lay-out of medium scale hatchery

Figure 13. Lay-out of small-scale hatchery

Figure 14. Migratory pattern of wandering species of shrimp

Figure 15. Migratory pattern of burrowing species of shrimp

Figure 16. Nauplius stages

Figure 17. Protozoeal stages

Figure 18A. & 18B. Mysis and Post-larval stages

Figure 19A. Shrimp with complete appendages

Figure 19B. Thelycum and spermatophore

Figure 20. Eyestalk oblation

Figure 21. Flow chart for batch culture of phytoplankton

Figure 22. Flow-chart of Rotifer culture

Figure 23. Flow Diagram of rotifer culture

Figure 24. Harvesting of Artemia

Figure 25. Filter box for draining in big tank

Figure 26. Filter box for small tank

Figure 27. Mature gonad of spawning

Figure 28A. Egg collection

Figure 28B. Cleaning of eggs by changing water

Figure 29. Cleaning of spawning tank

Figure 30. Harvesting of nauplii and tansport containers

Figure 31. Schematic diagram of prawn production from hatchery to grow-out ponds

Figure 32A. Programming of natural food culture for hatchery

Figure 32B. Feed and feeding scheme for shrimp larvae.

Figure 33. Nursing pond

Figure 34. Nursery cages

Figure 35. Steps invlove in harvesting of larvae


Table 1. Criteria for classification of shrimp hatcheries

Table 2. Performance data of roots blower

Table 3. Relation between pump diameter and standard efficiencies

Table 4. Transmission Efficiency

Table 5. Coefficient of Allowance

Table 6. Comparison of the egg development of three species of shrimp

Table 7. Comparison of the chronological development of three species of shrimp

Table 8. Ages and average body length of P. monodon larvae

Table 9. Hatching characterestics of commercially available Artemia


Appendix 1 The culture media and preparation

Appendix 2 Preparation of media