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Annexe 3. Glossary

Afforestation. Artificial establishment of forest on lands which previously did not carry forest within living memory (FAO, 1998b).

Agricultural area. Land used primarily for the production or collection of farm commodities (Schwarz et al, 1976). (FAO, 1999c)

Agroforestry. Agroforestry is a dynamic, ecologically based, natural resources management system that, through the integration of trees on farms and in the agricultural landscape, diversifies and sustains production for increased social, economic and environmental benefits for land users at all levels CIRAF, 200110 .

Artificial forest: see forest plantation

Built-up area. Areas which are characterized by an artificial cover which replaces the original (semi-natural) cover (FAO, 1997a). This term includes industrial areas, urban areas, transportation, communication and energy utilities (FAO, 1999c)..

Closed forest. Formations where trees in the various storeys and the undergrowth cover a high proportion (>40 percent) of the ground and do not have a continuous dense grass layer (cf. the following definition). They are either managed or unmanaged forests, primary or in advanced state of reconstitution and may have been logged-over one or more times, having kept their characteristics of forest stands, possibly with modified structure and composition. Typical examples of tropical closed forest formations include tropical rainforest and mangrove forest (FAO, 1998b)..

Deforestation. Refers to change of land cover with depletion of tree crown cover to less than 10 percent. Changes within the forest class (e.g. from closed to open forest) which negatively affect the stand or site and, in particular, lower the production capacity, are termed forest degradation (FAO, 1998b).

Forest. Land with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 hectares (ha). The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 meters (m) at maturity in situ. May consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground; or open forest formations with a continuous vegetation cover in which tree crown cover exceeds 10 percent. Young natural stands and all plantations established for forestry purposes which have yet to reach a crown density of 10 percent or tree height of 5 m are included under forest, as are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of human intervention or natural causes but which are expected to revert to forest.

Includes: forest nurseries and seed orchards that constitute an integral part of the forest; forest roads, cleared tracts, firebreaks and other small open areas; forest in national parks, nature reserves and other protected areas such as those of specific scientific, historical, cultural or spiritual interest; windbreaks and shelterbelts of trees with a area of more than 0.5 ha and width of more than 20 m; plantations primarily used for forestry purposes, including rubberwood plantations and cork oak stands.

Excludes: Land predominantly used for agricultural practices (FAO, 1998b).

Forest degradation. Takes different forms, particularly in open forest formations, deriving mainly from human activities such as over-grazing, over-exploitation (especially for fuelwood), repeated fires, or due to attacks by insects, diseases, plant parasites or other natural sources such as cyclones. In most cases, degradation does not show as a decrease in the area of woody vegetation but rather as a gradual reduction of biomass, changes in species composition and soil degradation. Unsustainable logging practices for roundwood and veneer in the absence of a correct management plan can contribute to degradation if the extraction of mature trees is not accompanied with their regeneration or if the use of heavy machinery causes soil compaction or loss of productive forest area (FAO, 1998b).

Forest fallow system. Refers to all complexes of woody vegetation deriving from the clearing of natural forest for shifting agriculture. It consists of a mosaic of various reconstitution phases and includes patches of uncleared forests and agriculture fields, which cannot be realistically segregated and accounted for area-wise, especially from satellite imagery. Forest fallow system is an intermediate class between forest and non-forest land uses. Part of the area may have the appearance of a secondary forest. Even the part currently under cultivation sometimes has the appearance of forest, due to the presence of tree cover. Accurate separation between forest and forest fallow may not always be possible.

Excludes: areas with tree or shrub cover, but of less than 0.5 ha and less than 20 m in width, which are classified as "other lands" (FAO, 1998b).

Forest Plantation. Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. They are either: of introduced species (all planted stands), or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. See also afforestation and reforestation. Not included is replanting of areas formerly under plantation (FAO, 1998b).

Forest services. Protection (against soil erosion by air or water, avalanches, mud and rock slides, flooding, air pollution, noise, etc.). Social and economic values (e.g., hunting and fishing, other leisure activities, including recreation, sport and tourism). Aesthetic, cultural, historical, spiritual and scientific values (including landscape and amenity) (FAO, 1998b).

Land cover. Land cover is the biophysical cover observable on the earth's surface by ground measurements or remote sensing. Includes spontaneous/natural and cultivated vegetation and land and housing development such as roads and buildings, as well as water surfaces, and rocky, sandy and glacier areas (FAO, 1998b).

Land degradation. Land which due to natural processes or human activity is no longer able to sustain properly an economic function and/or the original natural ecological function (FAO, 1999).

Land under permanent crops. Land cultivated with long-term crops which do not have to be replanted for several years after each harvest, including cultivation under cover; land under trees and shrubs producing flowers, such as roses and jasmine and nurseries except those for forest trees, which should be classified under "woodland or forest" (FAO, 1984) (FAO, 1999c).

Land under permanent meadows and pastures. Land used permanently (five years or more) for herbaceous forage crops, either cultivated or growing wild (wild prairie or grazing land). Permanent meadows and pastures on which trees and shrubs are grown should be recorded under this heading only if the growing of forage crops is the most important use of the area (FAO, 1984) (FAO, 1999c).

Land use. Land use is characterized by the arrangements, activities and inputs people undertake in a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it. Land use defined in this way establishes a direct link between land cover and the actions of people in their environment. Not to be confused with land cover. A crop is not a land use. Recreation area is a land use term that may be applicable for different land cover types: for instance sandy surfaces like a beach, a built-up area like a funfair, a forest (FAO, 1999c). Concerns the function or manner of land use. The concept of land use refers to a series of activities undertaken to produce one or more products or services. The same land use may embrace several plots with various land covers, and likewise, the same land cover may include various land uses. The definition of land use thus provides a basis for a detailed, quantitative analysis of economic and environmental impact, and also allows a clear distinction of different land uses, if necessary (FAO, 1998b).

Natural forest. Natural forests are forests composed of indigenous trees, not planted by man. Or, in other words, forests excluding plantations. Natural forests are further classified using the following criteria: forest formation (or type), closed/open, degree of human disturbance or modification, species composition.

Non-wood forest products. Non-wood forest products are products of biological origin other than wood derived from forests, wooded lands and trees outside forests (Unasylva, 1999). They are products for human consumption: foods, beverages, medicinal plants and various extracts (for instance, fruits, berries, nuts, game meats, mushrooms, etc.): fodder (pasture): other non-wood products, (for instance, cork, resin, tannins, industrial extracts, skins and wool, hunting trophies, Christmas trees, decorative foliage, mosses and ferns, essential and cosmetic oils) (FAO, 1998b).

Open forest. Formations with discontinuous tree layer but with a coverage of at least 10 percent and less than 40 percent. Generally there is a continuous grass layer allowing grazing and spreading of fires. Examples are various forms of cerrado and chaco in Latin America, wooded savannas and woodlands in Africa. Certain forest formations, for example miombo woodlands in southern Africa, lie at the boundary between closed and open formations (FAO, 1998b).

Other land. Land not classified as forest or other wooded land. Includes agricultural land, meadows and pastures, built-on areas including settlements and infrastructure, barren land, including sand dunes and rocky outcroppings, and glaciers and eternal snows (modified from FAO 1998b).

Other wooded land. Land either with a crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of 5-10 percent of trees able to reach a height of 5 m at maturity in situ; or a crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent of trees not able to reach a height of 5 m at maturity in situ (e.g. dwarf or stunted trees); or with shrub or bush cover of more than 10 percent (FAO, 1998b).

Shrubs. Refers to vegetation types where the dominant woody elements are shrubs, i.e., woody perennial plants, generally of more than 0.5 m and less than 5 m in height on maturity and without a definite crown. The height limits for trees and shrubs should be interpreted with flexibility, particularly the minimum tree and maximum shrub height, which may vary between 5 and 7 meters approximately.

Tree. A woody perennial with a single main stem, or in the case of coppice with several stems, having a more or less definite crown. Includes: bamboos, palms and other woody plants meeting the above criterion.

Trees outside forests. Refers to trees on land not defined as forest and other wooded land. Found on agricultural land (including meadows and pasture), on built-up land (including settlements and infrastructure) and on barren land (including sand dunes and rocky outcroppings). Also includes: trees and shrubs on land that fulfills the requirements of forest and other wooded land except that the area is less than 0.5 ha; trees able to reach a height of at least 5 m at maturity in situ where the stocking level is below 10 percent; trees not able to reach a height of 5 m at maturity in situ where the stocking level is below 10 percent; trees in shelterbelts and river galleries of less than 20 m in width and below 0.5 ha in area (FAO, 1998b).

Woody biomass. The mass of the woody part (stem, bark, branches, twigs) of trees, alive and dead, shrubs and bushes. Includes: above-ground woody biomass, stumps and roots. Excludes: folige, flowers and seeds.

10 The references are to be found at the end of Part One.

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