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News of the world

The items appearing here are condensed selections of news thought to be of interest to readers of UNASYLVA. They are grouped alphabetically by countries under headings currently used by the Forestry Division for reference purposes. The Editor will be glad to receive direct from readers authenticated items of interest and of news value for this part of the review.

Fundamental science
Logging and engineering
Forest injuries and protection
Mensuration and surveying
Forest management
Forest products and their utilization
Forest policy



· The National Administration of Forests has established forest stations throughout the country as part of the Government's scientific, economic and social scheme. Of particular importance is the Mendoza forest station, situated in the Department of Rivadia, which was set up for the purpose of carrying out the following important research projects: (1) study of germination in indigenous and exotic species; (2) registration of plantations for the purpose of ecological research and for the study of the growth characteristics of indigenous species; (3) phenological studies; (4) the adaptation and acclimatization of species having properties which make them valuable lumber; (5) basic soil research for the practical application of new methods of growing indigenous species with reference to the climatic and physical conditions of the region; (6) the installation, already under way, of equipment for the impregnation of softwood and for the preservation of poles, vine props and stakes necessary for agricultural development in the Mendoza region. This equipment will be adaptable for use by individuals wishing to treat wood on a small scale.


· In an effort to remedy the acute food shortage, the Government of India, through the Ministry of Agriculture, has issued a booklet dealing with 50 forest sources of supplementary food, including species of fungi and vines as well as trees. The edible parts of the plant and their food value are described for each species.


· A forest dedicated to the memory of the late Count Folke Bernadotte has been inaugurated in Israel at Neve Ilan, near Jerusalem. The first trees were planted on January 28 by G. Hedengren, Swedish Chargé d'Affaires in Israel; General William E. Riley, Chief of Staff of the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization in Palestine; Moshe Sharett, Israeli Foreign Minister; and General Yival Yadin, Israeli Chief of Staff. A scroll was handed to Foreign Ministry officials for transmission to Countess Bernadotte. Cabled messages were read from United Nations Secretary-General Trygve Lie and from Dr. Ralphe Bunche, Count Bernadotte's successor as mediator.

Count Bernadotte's efforts to establish a truce were recalled in a tribute by General Riley, who said that not only was bitter fighting thus interrupted in Palestine, but the United Nations itself was immensely strengthened as a peace-making force. "In the Security" Council truce order, in the formation and operation of truce supervision machinery, including a large corps of United Nations military observers, new and vitally important precedents have been established which have since had significance for beyond this area of the world, "he declared." This forest will pay an enduring tribute to an outstanding peace-maker, a great internationalist and humanitarian and a devoted servant of the United Nations. As it grows, may it ever flourish in that atmosphere of peace and goodwill among men for which Count Bernadotte gave his all.


· Forestry in Japan, 1945-1951, Report No. 153 issued by General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, Natural Resources Section, describes the achievement of some 48 American and 3 Australian foresters working in cooperation with Japanese during the 6 years of military occupation. They analyzed the forest situation, delineating the most critical problems and developing remedial programs. It is a record of which the foresters of SCAP's Natural Resources Section can well be proud, for they have not only taken a new look at the forest situation in Japan, but also helped to formulate policies and legislation and assisted in carrying out basic recommendations aimed at promoting maximum sustained yield and efficient utilization of the country's forest resources.

The first 30 pages are devoted to a factual presentation of the forest situation; the organization and operational methods of SCAP, and of the Japanese Government and industry; and the distribution, ownership, and administration of forests and forest lands. The next 50 pages are given over to descriptions of the forest programs carried out under the occupation, and to the recommendations of the 10 visiting consultants on such subjects as a resources survey and statistics, methods of exploitation and utilization, management methods for timber, watershed and range purposes, reforestation, protection, taxation, extension services, timber, owner's associations, timber export embargoes, legislation, and research. Maps, photographs, and tables in the text are used effectively to illustrate the general picture.

For reference purposes, the 60 pages of appendices provide tabulations of pertinent statistics, charts of organization, lists of personnel, lists of publications on which the report is based, and excerpts from the reports of visiting expert consultants.

This report is the most complete presentation now available of forestry conditions in Japan. It can be obtained from the office of Technical Services, United States Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C., or from GHQ, SCAP Diplomatic Section, Tokyo, Japan.


· The 51st Annual Meeting of the Society of American Foresters, held in Biloxi, Mississippi, December 12-15, 1951, reflected the wide range of interests of its members. In addition to 2 general technical sessions when 10 papers, largely dealing with various aspects of southern forestry, were presented, 13 separate division meetings were held at which a total of 66 papers were read. An additional general session was held dealing, with business of the Society, and field trips to nearby places of interest occupied 1 full day and 2 half days.

This the Society continues to recognize the specialized interests of many of its members and to provide within its structure for their technical contributions to be received at annual meetings. Moreover, the annual meeting is held in a different forest region almost every year, and the emphasis of the agenda is always on contributions from foresters within the region and dealing with its particular problems.

· The State College of Forestry at Syracuse, New York, has published an annotated bibliography of aerial photography and its applications to forestry. There are more than 300 titles, divided into chapters on aerial photography, mensuration, surveying, interpretation, equipment and techniques, films and filters, fire protection, recreation, wildlife management, range survey and flood Control.

Fundamental science


· The "yaretales" are the last shrub association at the highest elevations of the Cordillera de los Andes and in the corresponding zones in southernmost Chile. They lie within the elevated belt of the Andes where the prevailing climate is arid and where a fall in temperature causes intermittent violent storms in the summer. These storms, which mitigate the effects of drought in the hottest season, enable the vegetation peculiar to these extreme altitudes to survive.

The name "yareta" or "llareta" commonly refers to two genera of Umbelliferae typical of the Cordillera and the south antarctic region: Laretia, indigenous in Chile, limited in range to the elevated region of the Andes; and Azorella, which spreads also to the plains in the southern region.

The typical species Laretia compacta Reiche is frequently associated with "Yaretilla" (Picnophyllum molle, family Caryophyllaceae), as well as with flowering plants of the "tola"1 such as Baccharis rupicola, and B. genistelloides (Compositae); Fabiana sp., (Solanaceae) and the "pajonales" Stipa frigida, S. Chrysophylla (Gramineae), etc, and, at about 4,000 meters, with the sole tree species of the region, "Quenoa" (Polylepsis incana, Rosaceae). Naturally the frequency of these plants depends on the elevation, exposure, soil, etc.; the most common species is Stipa ("paja") which extends to the furthermost limit for vegetation at high altitudes.

"Yareta" are perennial low-growing shrubs; the stem, branches and sometimes (Laretia acaulis) even the petioles up to insertion of the leaf blades, are all completely lignified. The leaves have a leathery texture and are closely inter-joined to form the typical convex impenetrable involucre. The common characteristic is the "cushion" shape of the epigeous part of the individual bushes, due to the apical position of the inflorescence which stimulates lateral secondary branching. In a typical specimen the cushion is so compact that it can scarcely be perforated by a bullet (Reiche). This exceptional resistance is due to the crowded development of the small branches, the interstices of which are filled with the undecomposed residue of the dead parts. The cushions are firmly fixed in the soil by very long tap roots and also by adventitious roots sent out by the lateral branches which intermingle with the tap roots. Even when several cushions grow close together, so as to form apparently one single bush, the individual plants can be easily distinguished by the flowers which develop in the center, slightly above the convex surface of the involucre.

1 Tola zone; "tola" = Baccharis sp.

In both the Laretia and the Azorella species, when the old part dies off in the center, the plant continues to grow. The new branches form a kind of ring around the dead part; this ring is not always complete.

Yareta, in the natural state or charred, are used for fuel. The plant is cut when the individual branches of the bush have become completely lignified and practically welded together to form a kind of conglomerate. It is supposed to take 40 to 70 years, depending on soil conditions and elevation, to reach this stage, but these figures have not been verified. Yareta burns slowly, without flame, and is a poor fuel which is only used for want of better.

Light and medium oils, tar for caulking, anticorrosive varnishes can be extracted from yareta by distillation, but not on an industrial scale. A juice extracted from the root has a sedative effect in "Puna" (mountain sickness) and is used as an anti-asthmatic.

The yareta trade is very nearly a monopoly. The cutting and cleaning operations are done by native inhabitants (foreigners would suffer from mountain sickness) who derive a small income from this activity. The native communities (Aymara Indians or Aymara mixed races) apply traditional methods of collective work in cutting the yaretales, which closely resemble the system obtaining in some communities in the Alps.

Yareta plants are not edible, but during the summer sporadic rains, an herbaceous vegetation springs up rapidly under their shelter or in the interspaces and serves as pasture for sheep and domesticated llamas and also for the wild vicunas which are fairly common in these parts. In addition, some pluriennal grasses like the "paja" (Stipa spp.: needle-grass) often occur with yareta and supply a moderate amount of forage for the animals of these regions. The tender non-woody parts, and the young shoots that sprout in the brief growing period, are good forage. For these reasons, yaretales, notwithstanding their intrinsic meagre value, are of indirect importance. Any appreciable reduction in the utilization of yaretales would severely hit the budget of many native families.

However, if yareta continues to be exploited at the current rate, the species confined to Chile will disappear, as has already happened in the zone bordering the railroad to Bolivia.

Legislative measures do not help the situation, partly because the enforcement of the law in these distant and elevated regions is very problematical (also because of the lack of technical personnel on the spot), and partly because the police measures are the only official measures taken and do not reach the root of the problem.

There are many technical points on which data are lacking (economic and physical maturity, methods of reproduction, association characters, etc.). Since the survival of the yaretales is extremely precarious and their capacity for recovery is poor, it appears that they should be treated in the same way as shelter belts, that is by purely conservation criteria.


· Dr. Charles R. Hursh of the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, North Carolina, U.S.A., is to study the effects of forests and forest removal on local climate and water resources in East Africa. He will work under a Ful-bright Fellowship in association with the East African Agricultural and Forestry Research Organization, whose headquarters are in Kenya. The questions which he will study are of great importance in East Africa, as there are at present great differences of opinion among scientists as to the practical effect of forests on local climate and water resources. However, various associations of farmers are pressing the Government for strong policies of forest conservation and planting.


· In order to shorten the production period of new pine hybrids, both male and female flowers must be available as early in the life of the tree as possible. In its genetics work, the California Forest and Range Experiment Station has recently investigated methods of inducing the formation of male flowers. The method used was to graft seedlings by inarching to a mature ponderosa pine which was prolific in its production of pollen and conelets, this being possible because it was known that intergrafting between hard and white pines can be done readily. The shock of grafting was considerable. During the first summer the grafted seedlings just held their own, by the following summer growth had started and the wounds healed and calloused. Flowering began about two years after the grafting in the following species: P. torreyana. Parry (Torrey pine); P. contorta var. latifolia Engelm. (lodgepole pine); P. sabiniana Dougl. (Digger pine); Hybrid between P. jeffreyi Grev. and Balf., and P. coulteri D. Don. Slash pine (P. caribaea Morelet) failed to produce pollen.

As none of the grafted seedlings produced female flowers, research is now being conducted in this field.

· Since controlled water yield is the prime objective of wildland management in many areas of the hills and mountains of California, knowledge of the disposal of rainfall is a prerequisite for any plan of land management. The processes of rainfall disposal are well known in general terms: interception by vegetation, surface runoff, infiltration, evapo-transpiration, percolation through the soil, spring and stream flow, storage in reservoirs, and evaporation from water surfaces. But there is little detailed information regarding quantities and rates involved in each process.

The California Forest and Range Experiment Station has recently concluded a study of these factors on two important watersheds, by means of sample plots. One area is in the south-central Sierra Nevada Mountains, including woodland chaparral and ponderosa pine types. The other is in the Southern California chaparral with several brush types. The study involved, first, determination of water losses and water yield under natural vegetation and the effect of annual burning and denudation on losses and yield; and, second, calculation of water losses and yield from a single watershed. Experimental and analytical procedures were worked out, taking account of earlier work done in this field. While quantitative results apply specifically to the general types within which the studies were conducted, they may have indicative value in other areas with similar vegetation and soil types and with a Mediterranean climate. Moreover, it is probable that the methods employed will be applicable in similar studies conducted elsewhere on the management of wildlands for controlled water yield.

The principal conclusions reached were:

1. On plots with natural vegetation, average annual loss of rainfall due to interception ranged from 5 percent in woodland chaparral to 12 percent in ponderosa pine with an almost constant annual percentage.

2. The quantity of water entering the soil varied directly with annual rainfall, but evaporatory and transpiratory losses from each plot were uniform from year to year, average annual loss ranging from 14 inches (36 cm.) in woodland chaparral to 19 inches (48 cm.) in chamise brush.

3. Most of the annual evapo-transpiration loss took place during the spring and summer dry season, varying from 56 percent of total annual loss in woodland chaparral to 76 percent in ponderosa pine. This loss was more strongly influenced by available water storage capacity of the soil than by any other factor.

4. Percolation varied from plot to plot according to soil variations, and from year to year according to differences in the amount and distribution of rainfall.

5. To raise soil water storage to field capacity, early season rainfall was required in amounts varying from 10 inches (25 cm.) in the woodland chaparral to 19 inches (48 cm.) in chamise brush.

6. The bulk of percolation took place between December and April, beginning when soil water storage was restored to field capacity, continuing during subsequent storms, and ending when rains became too frequent or too small to replace current evapo-transpiration losses.

7. Annual burning of woodland chaparral reduced the reception loss, thus increasing the amount of rain reaching the soil, and reduced the infiltration capacity of the soil, thus greatly increasing surface runoff. The result was that more rain was required each year to start percolation and the quantity of percolation was greatly reduced. Annual evapo-transpiration was not appreciably changed by burning. The increase in total yield of the burned plot compared with the natural cover plot was obtained at the expense of greatly increased storm flows of runoff heavily charged with sediments. Similar results were obtained by annual burning of ground cover under ponderosa pine.

8. Removal of vegetation, trenching and maintenance of bare surface eliminated interception and transpiration losses, reduced evaporative but greatly increased surface runoff and erosion. Drying of the soil layer was less than on natural cover or annually burned plots, and thus deep-soiled bare plots entered each rainy season with a greater carryover than those with shallow soils. Total water yield was greatest from bare plots, out percolation yield much less than from natural plots.

9. On the 875-acre (354 ha.) watershed studied as a whole with an average annual rainfall of 31 inches (787 mm.), the disposition was 2½ inches (64 mm.), interception loss, evapo-transpiration and riparian losses 10.8 inches (274 mm.) percolation 17.8 (451 mm.) of which only 4 inches (10.2 mm.) left the watershed as measured stream flow, thus leaving 13.8 inches (350 mm.) as underground flow.



In 1945 Joint concerti of Government and industry as to what was happening to cut-over and burned-over forest led the Woodland Section of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association to propose a systematic survey. This was done by the Research Division of the Association's Forestry Branch from 1946 to 1948. The primary purpose was to find the extent to which such forest was reproducing in various sections, particularly to coniferous pulpwood species; the secondary purpose was to develop a satisfactory inventory system and to determine the more important limiting factors where reproduction was unsatisfactory. This survey constituted the first stage in a co-ordinated study of the problem. The second stage involves study of the factors causing success or failure of regeneration and the third stage involves devising measures to correct existing conditions and thus to ensure success in obtaining reproduction. Studies on the first two stages are underway.

The report of the first stage of the research shows that 583,000 quadrats (each 2 X 2 m.) were observed, arranged in plots of 20, with 100 plots in each selected area. The latter were chosen to sample (1) the forest section -the boreal, sub-alpine, montane, coast, Columbia, deciduous, Great Lakes-St. Lawrence and Acadian forest regions; the interior plains and sagebrush-grass grassland formations; the tundra formation; (2) the original forest type; (3) the nature of the disturbance; (4) the age group since disturbance. Res-Lilts are reported and analyzed separately for each province.

Areas studied, which had been mature and overmature, had been logged very severely only once. The survey methods used initially and subsequent modifications will interest technicians in this highly specialized field. Of wider concerti, however, are the major findings of fact, and particularly interpretations of the facts for, as the author of the report says, "while the results are factual, interpretations and conclusions drawn from them may be controversial. It is debatable whether the chosen measure of full stocking (an established tree on 80 percent of the milacres in a sample) is too high or too low; whether balsam fir and/or hardwoods are satisfactory or unsatisfactory replacement species in original spruce forests; methods of sampling used. Debate at least indicates interest."

Arithmetic measures of stocking adopted were:



Number of Stocked Quadrats per plot


Fully stocked


80 to 100

Well stocked


60 to 79

Moderately stocked


40 to 59



40 to 39


Under 4

Under 20

Major conclusions are: (1) On areas disturbed by logging and then fire, coniferous regeneration was a complete failure or, at best, insufficient. Advance regeneration, which is of utmost value, was destroyed, as was the favorable seedbed of moist rotting wood, and in some cases the seed as well; (2) On areas disturbed by fire alone, results varied, but were on the average unsatisfactory. Severity of fire and survival of seed trees was the key; second burns were fatal to coniferous regeneration; (3) West of Lake Superior, regeneration following any disturbance was much less abundant than in the east. Less moisture and slower decomposition of ground litter are the main factors. Finally, since this was not an inventory, further work by provincial services and industry needs to be undertaken to find the percentage distribution of stocking classes in various areas.

The completion of the first stage of this undertaking is evidently stimulating great interest in the whole problem of forest regeneration in Canada. It may be hoped that, with the facts and causes brought to light, measures will be devised and put into effect to halt devastation and serious understocking, and to maintain the immense forests, so important to the national economy, in a fully productive condition. The work already done, and that now beginning, should be of interest to other nations in the northern coniferous region.


· It is reported that two Chilean beeches, Nothofagus procera and N. obliqua, introduced into parts of England 50 years ago, show remarkable progress. Stems 50 years old are straight and clean, 100 feet (30 m.) in height; the two species are hardy and apparently able to thrive on acid as well as on limestone soils. N. obliqua is reproducing freely from self-sown seed. The species show the same features in their natural habitat and there would appear to be a good future for these trees, as well as for N. dombeyi, as timber producing species in England.


· Recently studies have been made of 15-year-old stands of loblolly pine (Pine taeda) and eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) on abandoned fields in Mississippi.

The studies were made to determine the comparative value of these species in soil protection and water absorption. Loblolly is a desirable species for flood control planting, since it produces large amounts of litter in a short time, and the surface layer of soil absorbs water faster than under herbaceous cover. Red cedar develops even more desirable characteristics in the surface soil than does loblolly, and planting of this species is indicated when the primary objective is soil rehabilitation rather than flood control.

Logging and engineering


· In the ponderosa pine forests of eastern Oregon and Washington, forage is of major importance to the economy of the region and, since logging is progressing rapidly, a study has been conducted on the effect of logging on forage production. Tractor logging denuded herbaceous and shrubby vegetation from 21 percent of the ground and covered 5 percent more with slash; cable logging denuded 15 percent and covered 15 percent with slash; horse logging denuded 12 percent and covered 5 percent with slash. Deep soil disturbance occurred on 15 percent of the tractor logged area and on about 2 percent of the area logged by other methods. Where soil disturbance totalled 44 percent, the density of herbaceous and shrubby vegetation was reduced 47 percent. It is possible that artificial revegetation of the disturbed areas may be desirable, both to restore forage values promptly and to protect the disturbed lands from erosion.

Forest injuries and protection


· Forest Fire Protection Abstracts, prepared by the Forestry Branch, Canadian Department of Resources and Development, is a valuable addition to the publications available to the many foresters who specialize in this field. Articles selected are naturally those of particular interest to Canada. Categories are: Communication; Detection; Fire Danger Measurement; Fire Control Organization and Planning; Prevention; Suppression Methods; Suppression Equipment; and Miscellaneous.


· Forest fire insurance was first started in Japan in 1920, and in 1937 was taken over by the Government in order that small private owners could derive greater benefits from the service. Forest fire insurance applies to young forests less than 20 years old which would have relatively little salvage value if they should burn. That this is a popular program is indicated by the fact that by the end of 1938, one year after it was taken over by the Government, there were outstanding 19,420 policies covering about 300,000 acres (120,000 ha.) valued at 14,360,000 yen or about $ 7 million. By March 31, 1951 there were 79,651 policies covering 486,978 ha. at a value of over 4,601 million yen ($ 2,200 million).


· A recommendation that uniform reports be made on individual fires wherever fire control is attempted was put forward by the group of foresters who, under the sponsorship of FAO and ECA, studied fire control in the U.S.A. in 1951. It was proposed, too, that FAO prepare a standard reporting form and sponsor its adoption.

In the U.S.A., uniform and comprehensive reporting was adopted by the Forest Service in 1921 (although the forms have been changed from time to time as experience indicated), and most of the other fire control organizations have similar systems. This step was taken because analysis of thousands of individual fire reports had proved how indispensable such records were as a basis for relating causes and effects, identifying weaknesses in an existing organization, and in indicating ways in which improvement may be sought. This source of primary data for fire research has been widely used in the U.S.A. The analyses have taken varying forms as workers in different forest regions and in different organizations naturally sought solutions to their own particular fire problems. In Finland during the twenties Prof. E. Saari similarly used individual reports in analyzing fire control.

The most recent employment of the method is in Station Paper No. 28 of the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, which analyzes 36,000 fires recorded by the protection agencies in the Northern Rocky Mountains between 1931 and 1945. In this region the Forest Service has contributed greatly to fire control planning methods by defining a graded series of fuel types and by devising ways to measure the burning index. By relating the data from individual reports to the types and index data, a multitude of significant correlations can be made. Indeed, each body of data supports the other so that the unsolved elements of the practical task of controlling fires stand out, as do the directions in which solution may be sought.

Not the least interesting aspect of this study is the comparison between the traditional lookout detection plus ground attack on the one hand, and the current air-plus-ground detection and attack on the other. There is also an indication of the comparative behavior of fires in areas that have already been cut or burned over as against the undisturbed timber types. This particular region has long been occupied in handling the occasional concentration of lightning fires which tend to swamp the organization. But man-caused fires, though decreasing are still responsible for nearly half of the area burned. Evidently further attention is needed with regard both to prevention measures and to quicker and stronger attack on such fires.

Particular attention has been given in this study to the effect on fire behavior of topography, fuels, and weather, and their relation to the rate of ignition and rate of spread. Analysis of these factors gives a powerful guide to the planning and operation of the control organization.

This study should strengthen the planning basis for improving fire control. It will surely be of value to fire control officers in other countries as a convincing example of the many ways in which analysis of detailed records of experience helps the vital and difficult task of forest fire control.

· In the Pacific Northwest, a major expense is control of alder and willow on the edges of fire protection roads, since these species sprout vigorously when cut and spread rapidly into the road space.

Experiments have been conducted, using a standard tank truck, a one-inch (2.5 cm.) fog nozzle and 6-foot (1.8 m.) applicator for spraying the samples of roadside vegetation. The most effective material was sodium salt 2-4-D at the rate of 500 parts per million applied between mid-May and early July.

· For 15 years, studies of the ecology of the Sierra Nevada gooseberry (Ribes roezli) have been under way as part of the program of blister rust control in the mixed conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California.

Analysis of this work now makes it possible to draw some general conclusions regarding control operations and to confirm the extreme complexity and long range nature of the problem.

The gooseberry establishes itself readily and profusely after any form of disturbance such as fire, logging or grazing, and produces seed profusely in 3 to 6 years, which remains viable for many years in the forest floor. Ribes grows and develops rapidly in the early years after disturbance, then gradually declines and, in very dense timber stands, tends to disappear. Seed is widely disbursed through the forests by animals and birds and remains latent until conditions suitable to germination occur.

If control is undertaken after Ribes plants have produced seed, frequent and costly treatments are necessary as new plants are established. Therefore the most desirable time for control is the brief period after seed germination and before seed formation. A somewhat less desirable time for control is long enough after disturbance, when new seedlings are no longer appearing and control of the dwindling older plants only is required. Control operations begun during the major period of growth and seed production are likely to be relatively ineffective.

Ribes control is a part of the problem of sugar pine (P. lambertiana) management. Sugar pine reproduction after logging commonly requires considerable opening of the forest, probably enough to stimulate Ribes germination. In general, the forest is not suited to clear felling which if it could be used, would make the problem of Ribes control relatively simple. Despite the difficulties, control must be achieved in view of the extremely high value of the sugar pine, always present in forests with a considerable proportion of less valuable tree species.


· Article 68 of the decree of March 1930, which is still in force and which constitutes the forestry charter in Indochina, makes the following provisions with regard to "rây" (shifting cultivation):

The entire classified and protected forest domain, as regards rây, is divided into three zones: (1) A "green" zone where rây is prohibited; this includes those portions of territory which, in the interest of public welfare, require either the absolute maintenance of the forests or the complete elimination of rây. This zone necessarily includes the entire classified forest domain. (2) A "red" zone where rây is restricted; this pertains to those forests of territory not included in the green zone which can be kept under strict surveillance. Rây is only permitted in areas properly selected and delimited, and tinder rotation long enough to avoid soil degradation, and must be completely surrounded by a peripheral strip at least 100 m. wide on which the original vegetation of no matter what kind is maintained intact. Finally, it may also be obligatory to replant the areas to which rây is limited with forest species. (3) A "white" zone, where rây is tolerated; this includes forests where no effective inspection and surveillance can be ensured. Here rây is tolerated without any special formality, with the reservation, however, that the area be completely surrounded by a peripheral strip of the primeval vegetation, 100 m. wide at least, as in the case of the red zone.

The division of the classified and protected forest domain into these three zones is the function of the local chief administrator of each province on the scheme established by the chief of the local water, forest and hunting service. This is based on the procedure laid down in Article 7 of the same decree which deals with forest classification.

The location of the areas where rây is permitted and the establishment of a rotation system in the red zone is a matter for the chief of the local water, forest and bunting service.

Mensuration and surveying


· In 1948, Bitterlich published in German a rapid method of sampling tree basal area per acre without measurement of plot radius or tree basal area. Though widely used in Europe, the method has been overlooked elsewhere although it has considerable potential value in speeding up sampling. The method, which is based on sound mathematics, a special instrument, and standard procedures, is described in a recent issue of the Journal of Forestry (Vol. 50, No. 1, January 1952).


· The problem of timber evaluation from aerial photos is under continuous study at the Central States Forest Experiment Station. Methods have now been developed whereby air photos alone can furnish the necessary data where a 10 percent margin of error is admissible and where volume by species or diameter class is not required. Tests over both small and large areas show that reasonable accuracy is attainable.

The first step is preparation of aerial volume tables (already noted in Unasylva, Vol. V, No. 4).

The second step is the preparation of the photos and template. Next, the total area to be measured and the various forest classifications must be determined; these should be based primarily on characteristics easily recognized on air photos. Plot volumes are estimated on a predetermined number of one-acre plots mechanically selected on the photos when the number of plots in different classifications has been determined. The volume is determined front average total height, average crown diameter and percent crown coverage of the dominant stand - all determined from the photographs. The mean volume per acre for a given classification is obtained by averaging the volumes assigned to the plots in that classification. Normal maps are unnecessary, but mosaics of the photos may be prepared for later use in management if required.

Considerable time can be saved by this method in comparison with methods involving field measurement of plots. The limitations of the method are that individual trees cannot be precisely measured, cull estimated nor species identified. If information on these is required, field work on selected plots is necessary.

Forest management


· Forest grazing in the eleven southern states is a long established and widespread practice and, since it is traditionally accompanied by deliberate burning of the range, it has long been recognized as damaging to the standing timber. When fire control is effective, forage yield drops from a ton per acre (0.4047 ha.) to as little as 100 pounds (45 Kg.). Many studies show that the traditional year-long grazing of forest ranges is very bad animal husbandry, since the nutritive value of the main forage species varies greatly from season to season. Nevertheless, there is substantial forage in the southern pine forests which, under correct management, can be utilized to produce better quality meat and without disadvantage to forestry.

On areas once restocked to desired timber species, forage can be harvested for a few years. On firebreaks within the forest areas, desirable forage species can be established and can provide feed for a long time. The general pattern of development needed comprises pastures for the use of livestock during seasons when the nutritive value of the forest range is low, use of better grades of livestock, fencing of ranges so that grazing can be fully controlled, and reseeding of selected areas to desirable forage species.

So far, work shows that beef production can be doubled, tripled or quadrupled with improved management in the directions indicated, and that better quality meat will also result.

· In California, a project for burning brushlands to improve forage is being followed by the collection of information on costs and returns. On areas for which reliable figures are available, an average of only 56 percent of the area attempted was actually burned. Cost of burning averaged 29 cents per acre (72 cents per ha.) on total acres in the burn, divided into 19 cents for preparation of fire lines, 6 cents for burning, and 4 cents for fence repair. About 26 percent of the area has been reseeded, mostly by air, at a cost of $ 2.32 per acre ($ 5.73 per ha.) actually seeded. Information on results in forage production is fragmentary; in two areas it appears that grazing capacity was increased from 0.2 animal unit months per acre (0.5 per ha.) before burning to 0.8 (2.0 per ha.) the first year after the burn. Further information is expected as additional results are analyzed.

· In industrialized areas of Alabama forest depletion is very severe since the coal and iron mines use the best trees of small sizes for mining timber, in addition to the usual drain for other purposes. The mines use one-fifth of the wood marketed in the territory. Thus the forests contain a large proportion of undesirable hardwood stumpage. The mines accept hardwood props, but cutters prefer working in pine.

A recent study of costs of producing pitprops indicates that direct costs were 20 percent greater for hardwood than for pine props. It was found that for felling trees 8 inches (20 cm.) d.b.h. and larger, and for bucking logs or bolts larger than 7 inches (18 cm.) in diameter, the 3-man power chain saw is cheaper than other methods, provided it operates steadily. Splitting bolts from large trees reduces the cost of props, and topping time increases rapidly as diameters larger than 6.5 inches (17 cm.) are chopped.

Since most of the props are cut from company lands which, as a consequence, are deteriorating, mining companies themselves are suffering a loss through their general failure to utilize low-grade hardwoods. Company landowners could encourage use of the hardwoods by reducing or eliminating stumpage charges to cutters.

Forest products and their utilization


· In eastern Canada, about 30 percent of the log volume sawn into spruce lumber is in slabs and edgings, unusable as lumber but containing good wood. At 60 selected sawmills it was found that 62 percent of the slabs, edgings and trim was utilized as fuel at the mill or sold as fuelwood, 6 percent was manufactured into small products, and the remaining 32 percent was unused. Utilization of such material for pulp is possible only if the slabs and edgings can be debarked economically, and a special research co-ordinating committee on the utilization of mill waste for pulpwood, including technicians and representatives of companies, has recently been formed to study the question.

As the first step, the committee has brought together and summarized information on the various debarking processes now in use, with particular reference to their applicability for handling slab wood. All barking machines at present in use can be classified into four main groups, employing (1) cutting knives, (2) rubbing friction, (3) hydraulic erosion, and (4) thermopressure.

1. Cutting Knives. Eight barking machines are included in this group, all employing some arrangement of knives for cutting the bark from the log. As a result of this cutting action, some wood is lost together with the bark. Most of these machines are designed to handle only small wood such as poles, pulpwood bolts, and slabs, although two machines of this type bark large logs.

2. Rubbing Friction. Eight more machines are included in this group, four of which are designed to handle sawlogs while others handle small pulpwood bolts or poles. Bark removal is accomplished through various arrangements of chains, scrapers, or the rubbing of the logs against one another.

3. Hydraulic Erosion. The six in this group are all relatively expensive, have high power requirements, and are designed, with the exception of the hydraulic slab barker, to handle large logs. The actual barking operation is accomplished through the action of a stream, or streams, of water directed at high pressure onto the bark, thus stripping it from the log. Information on two other machines, the original Weyerhäuser - believed to be a single nozzle hydraulic - and the Simons Rotary-head barker, which resembles very closely the Hansel ring type, was not available when the report was published.

4. Thermopressure. This method still in the development stage, constitutes a new approach to the problem of bark removal. The material to be debarked is inserted into a stainless steel cylinder, steam pressure is applied and then released suddenly. The bark is reported to be exploded "from the wood."

The whole-log barkers now in use are expensive and thus limited in use to larger mills. The buzz barker has a relatively low cost, but its capacity is only about 2.9 cords (7 cu. m.) per man-day. In addition, information has been obtained on the air-float method of bark separation which, however, does not remove bark from bark-covered chips but merely segregates the different types of chips.


· A large scale project is now getting under way which will involve a comprehensive study of the possibilities of utilizing sugar-cane bagasse. This project is sponsored by the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association and other concerns in their efforts to strengthen Hawaii's economy with the new industries. An all-out effort will be made to develop the fullest commercial use of bagasse for pulp, paper, feed and other products. A group of experts from the American pulp and paper industry has joined experts of the sugar industry on this project.


· The Natural Resources Section of General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for Allied Powers, has recently isued an admirable summary of the properties and uses of commercially important Japanese woods. There are 176 species of timber trees important to Japan, including 22 exotics. Comparative analysis of strength properties of 98 Japanese woods and of 68 woods grown in the United States identifies 28 American species comparable in properties with specified Japanese woods. A detailed listing of the woods used in order of importance for a large number of purposes is given with particular emphasis on construction of boats, since practically all Japanese boats are of wood. Forty important species are described, giving wood qualities and characteristics, nail penetration, working qualities and durability. The important uses of the principal species are likewise summarized with, finally, a list of the commercial woods used in Japan, giving the Japanese names in Romaji and in Hiragana, the scientific name and the English name.

This summary should be useful in helping to extend the life of Japan's timber reserves by making data available on many little-used species that can be substituted for woods in great demand but in short supply.


· A report on Portuguese East Africa states that a printing firm has announced its intention of forming a company to erect a papermaking plant in the province. The intention is to utilize raw material such as papyrus, long grasses and canes, sugar cane, sisal and cotton waste and others, which grow, or can be grown, locally. The paper mill will produce some 20 tons of paper of all sorts daily, and the pull) mill will produce daily an additional 50 tons of pulp. This surplus pull) will be exported.


· From several official publications come reports of the development of the timber industry in Rumania. Before the present 5 year plan (1951-1955) began, mechanization was already under way in many sawmills, wood-using and veneer plants. Logging tractors, cranes and automobiles are now replacing the traditional ox in logging operations. In the Carpathians aerial cables are being used for log transport and remote timber tracts are being opened up by narrow gauge railroads. In 1949, 230 km. of such roads were constructed and in the same year one of the largest aggregates of wood-using plants was put into operation at the town of Vatra-Dorney.

From 1951 to 1955 some 23,800 million lei1 are to be invested in the building up of forest industries. Productivity in the sawmills has also increased, and sawn lumber production (1948 = 100) rose to 133 percent in 1949, and 160 percent in 1950. In the last few years furniture production too has expanded, and from 1949 to 1950 production of high quality furniture increased by 43 percent, while mass-produced furniture for domestic use doubled. An entirely new industry has also come into existence - the production of prefabricated houses. Since productivity depends to a large degree on the skill of the workers, efforts are being made to raise the technical qualifications of wood workers through vocational schools. In 1951, 6,000 workers were trained. There are 17 schools and institutes of the middle grade for training engineers and technicians for the timber industry alone.

1 150 lei = US $ 1. app.


· Increased interest in utilization of sawdust, shavings and similar wood waste for production of board materials has resulted in experiments with methods other than the wet-forming process, which is limited to the use of coarser types of wood waste.

One attempt is the production of cemented boards for use where some structural strength and insulation are important. However, only specially cut wood wool can be used for this process and not random sawdust and shavings.

There have been a number of successful applications of the dry-formed or resin-bonded board. One advantage is that these dry and semi-dry processes lend themselves to use in smaller plants (15-30 tons a day) than is economical for the wet-formed process (50100 tons). The smaller plant can be installed at approximately two-thirds of the cost of the latter. There are additional costs, particularly that of resin binders in the dry-formed process, but the resulting boards are superior in hardness and nail- and screw-holding properties. At present, the critical short supply of resins is likely to be a limiting factor in the expansion of plant capacity.

· After extended and costly research, the Du Pont Company has developed a new way of adding synthetic rubber, neoprene, to paper. The neoprene is now added in latex form to the pulp just before it is made into paper, resulting in a new type of low-cost specialty paper which has the advantages of wet strength, chemical resistance and all-round improvement in physical properties compared with those produced by older methods of coating or saturating the finished paper.

Forest policy


· Bulgaria is in the middle of its first 5-year plan, 1949-1953, which provides for a new appraisal of the forest resources of the country, their condition, the measures that are being taken for their improvement and plans for the future.

The forest area of Bulgaria is estimated at 3.3 million hectares, of which under 3 million (26.7 percent of the total land area) is actually covered with timber. Conifers occupy 13 percent of the timbered area and are concentrated chiefly in the southwest of the country along the slopes of the Rhodope, Perin and Rill Mountains. Pine (61 percent) is the predominant conifer, followed by spruce (26 percent) and fir (13 percent); the coniferous stands are mostly middle-aged or approaching maturity. Hardwoods (beech and oak) for the bulk of Bulgarian forests covering 2,570,000 ha. or 87 percent of the timber covered area. Of the hardwood stands 28 percent are high forest, and 59 percent are of sprout origin; beech forests are found mostly on the slopes of the Stara Planina Mountains which transect the country from west to cast, and consist for the most part of mature and over mature stands. High oak forest occupies only a small area, mainly in the east and southeast of the country. Some are dying from the top due probably to a change in the water regime caused by prolonged droughts in latter years. Sprout forests, mostly of oak, are found in the valleys and foothills. The condition of all types of forest is on the whole very poor, due to irregular cuttings in the past, overgrazing, and lack of protection.

Since the country is largely mountainous and whatever forest vegetation there is, is confined to the mountain slopes, nearly all forests are classed as watershed protection forests (89 percent of the total forest area). No clear cutting is allowed and grazing is restricted.

The cut for the whole country is higher than the annual percent growth, but is very unevenly distributed. The cut of conifers, around which the forest industry is centered, is often twice as large as the annual growth, while only half of the hardwood growth is utilized. A large reforestation program is under way, and within the last 6 years some 85,000 ha. have been planted or sown, Within the next 12 years 990,000 ha. are to be brought into productivity through planting, assisting natural regeneration, etc. Forest specialists are trained in the Forestry Department of the Agricultural Academy in Sofia where the Central Forest Research Institute is also located. There are two forest technical high schools, one in Velingrad and the other at Tetven, and four forest schools for training lower forest personnel with a 2-year course.

Forest fires have always been a scourge of the country and are often started by the peasants to increase pasture lands, of which there is a great scarcity. Although measures are now being taken to combat forest fires, they are still very prevalent, and in 1950 as a result of the drought the number was especially great. More than half of the fires (56 percent) are caused by negligence; 35 percent arise from unknown causes and 9 percent by sparks from locomotives.


· A recent summary of the resources and reserves of the Gold Coast forests and of the timber industry brings out some significant facts. Forest reserves cover 5,800 square miles (15,022 sq. km.) of which 3,429 square miles (8,879 sq. km.) are actually or potentially accessible for timber production. Forest lands outside reserves cover 10,200 square miles (26,418 sq. km.) but are being cleared at the rate of about 300 square miles (777 sq. km.) a year for farming. The policy is to exploit the land outside the reserves now, in order to remove the valuable timber before it is destroyed in land clearing. In the reserves, where cutting is rigidly controlled, the policy is to cut only mature and over mature trees.

The Forestry Department has 4 divisions, each under a Conservator of Forests with several districts and many ranges under him, all reporting to the Chief Conservator.

About 800 square miles (2,000 sq. km.) of additional reserves are desirable in order to maintain a large export trade. Timber exports have increased from 600,000 tons before the war to 7 million tons in 1948. and their value has risen from £ 60,000 to £ 2,500,000. About 88 percent of exports are logs and 12 percent sawn lumber. Of this, 94 pet-cent of the logs and 85 percent of the sawn lumber goes to Britain and the United States. Before and (luring the war, nearly all exports were mahogany, but by 1948, 28 types of wood were being exported.

The number of sawmills has increased from five before the war, with an output of 260,000 ft.3 (7,000 m3) a year, to 15 today, with an Output Of 1 ¾ million ft.3 (50,000 m3) a year. Three additional mills are being constructed which will raise total output to 2 ½ million ft.3 (71,000 m3) a year.

At present the demand for rail transportation cannot be met owing to the shortage of locomotives and rolling stock.


· Comparison of climatological data in Iceland, Northern Norway and Alaska indicates that, since the meteorological stations in Norway and Alaska are in areas well stocked with coniferous forests, great parts of Iceland would be in the northern coniferous belt were it not for the isolation of the country.

The native flora includes only about 430 different species of higher plants and pteridophytes, nearly all of European origin, but only about half the number found in Scandinavia under similar climatic conditions.

At the time of the first settlement, about 900 A.D., most of Iceland was covered with forests, principally of birch of which three species were found, together with three willows, mountain ash and dwarf Juniper. Coniferous trees did not reach Iceland after the last ice age. The original birch forests were devastated through the use of the country by the settlers, and widespread and severe soil erosion resulted. Sheep and cattle raising were the main livelihood and, since hay-making was extremely limited, livestock was left to shift for itself. This use of the land plus heavy cutting of the birch forests for fuel and wood has reduced the total vegetative cover to about 40 percent of the original. This no longer provides an adequate source of timber; imports averaging ½ m3 per head per year are therefore necessary. The devastation has not yet been severely felt since the country is thinly populated, but it is evident that the ranges and pastures cannot stand heavier grazing than at present, Most of the remaining vegetated area has been reduced to brushwood, though there are remnants of the original forest.

Experiments in planting imported conifers were begun in 1899 and continued up to 1913, after which nothing was done until 1933 when reforestation was again started. In the earlier experiments, less was known about climatic conditions in Iceland than now, and trees from continental climate areas too far south were used, since it was difficult to obtain seeds from areas resembling Iceland climatically. Of the seven conifers used, six were from European sources and one, Pinus aristata, from high altitudes in Colorado, U.S.A.

In later afforestation work, species from northern Alaska, northern Norway and Russia have so far given far better results than those obtained with the earlier work, Larix siberica from Russia, Picea abies from Norway, P. sitchensis from various sources, P. Engelmanni from Colorado, U.S.A., Abies lasiocarpa from Oregon, U.S.A., Pinus silvestris from Norway, P. contorta from British Columbia, are all under test, and so far giving promising results. Where material from carefully selected sources is used, it seems clear that timber will be of economic importance in the future.

One of the most interesting results is the success of the species from the United States which seems to indicate that length of solar radiation in summer is of less importance than was believed, and that there is thus the possibility of using species from high altitudes.


· The status of the forests of the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan is summarized in a recent report by the Inspector General of Forests who works under the Ministry of Food and Agriculture.

In the settled districts, forests cover only 4.2 percent of the total land area, and only 2.1 percent consists of reserved forests; in the tribal areas, the percentages are probably not much greater. The forest situation as a whole is considered appalling, since a large proportion of the reported uncrossed forests are already destroyed. Systematic forestry started in 1867, but only in one district ' and it was not until 1930 that a Forest Circle covering the whole of the Province was formed. However, in 1880, fine canal plantations and roadside plantations were begun and, in 1926, timber import regulation., were introduced. During World War 11, emphasis was placed on a maximum output of forest products of all sorts.

Erosion is severe on the hills, due to the indiscriminate cutting of firewood and to uncontrolled grazing which prevents the establishment of trees or brush. Gullying has spread to the farmlands and is increasing. Moreover, the population is growing so that these problems are likely to become more severe. The average annual net revenue during the 5 years 1944/45 through 1948/49 was Rs. 3,960,976.2

2 1 Rupee = US $ .30 app.

Recently a system has been voluntarily adopted by landowners to close their land to grazing, but only 39,000 acres (15,780 ha.) have so far been registered. Working plans are generally unsatisfactory and behind schedule, except those for the main plantations which are reasonably up-to-date. Anti-erosion work has been begun successfully, and emphasis is being placed on additional planting.

However, major reorganization is regarded as essential. Most divisions are at present too small, and most of the gazetted officers who were promoted from subordinate posts were trained only in the ranger class leaving a dearth of officers with higher training. It is proposed that salaries be raised on the basis that it is more economical to have fewer well-paid officers than a large number of low-paid and discontented officers.

This reorganization, together with the task of increasing the area and distribution of reserved forests, stand out as major problems for the new administration.


· A new Department of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, including a Forestry Section, has been set up in Portuguese Timor. Timor has three main types of forest: the deciduous or monsoon which preponderates over the whole island as primary and secondary formations (dominants: Schleichera, Pterocarpus); the evergreen (dominants: Eugenia, Intsia, Pometia, Ficus, Pterospermium, Carnarium); and the mountain forest, composed mainly of Podocarpus and Casuarina. Not included in the original climax forests are also the large characteristic stands of Eucalyptus alba and Eucalyptus decaisneana.


· The American Society of Range Management, both through a Society Committee on Curricula and through symposia reported in the Journal of Range Management, is giving attention to the problems of professional education in range management. The position of range management in training establishments is highly varied. In some schools, the subject is taught as a separate major subject in range management departments, independent of other fields. In others, it is included in departments of forestry, animal husbandry, botany or agronomy. The content of the curricula is strongly flavored by the dominant subject matter of the department. It is quite obvious, then, that some effort toward greater uniformity and some degree of standardization of curricula is desirable, particularly since in some schools little or no instruction is given in either forestry or in the basic sciences. The size of the teaching staff varies from one to nine and, in many cases, teachers are spending a good deal of time on independent research. Of teachers holding doctor's degrees, nearly all obtained the degree in plant ecology from one of the recognized universities.

The first courses in range management were set up to supply the demand of the public agencies, such as the U. S. Forest Service and the U. S. Bureau of Land Management, and thus the instruction aimed to fit students for range management work or range research. Accomplishment of effective management, however, rests primarily on the private owner of range livestock and of rangeland, since all stock and at least 25 percent of the land are privately owned. Thus there are two requirements for all-round range education over and above technical knowledge of the range itself, namely, ability to prepare technical material so that it will be intelligible to, and used by, owners unfamiliar with conventional types of scientific material; and, second, to devise means for extension work with owners, either singly or in groups. Thus analysts of the range school problem are emphasizing training in these arts in addition to the usual technical subject matter and basic sciences. Such broad training is regarded as desirable, both for men who will be administrators and researchers.

Increased attention is being given to basic ecological facts about grasslands, both in training students and in educating range users. Essential facts are: (1) if the parts above ground are kept grazed down the roots are killed; (2) nature abhors a vacuum, and when desirable species are killed out, space is captured by undesirable species; (3) nature keeps trying to put back the same kind of vegetation on areas from which it has been removed; (4) the principal factor limiting growth in grassland climates is soil moisture, and thus provision must be made by retaining part of the vegetation to get water into the soil from whence it will be drawn by the plants. At least half the year's growth should be so reserved to maintain proper conditions.

There is a rapidly growing body of technical books and papers on the various aspects of range management, the more significant of which are reported currently in the Journal. A revised and up-to-date textbook on range management by A.W. Sampson (Range Management: Principles and Practice, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1951. US $ 7.50) has now been published and attention should also be drawn to Improving the World's Grasslands, FAO's Agricultural Study No. 16.

· Educational work in farm forestry is conducted by the state agricultural extension services of the land-grant colleges, in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture's Extension Service, and with the Forest Service which provides basic information. Forty-five states and one territory now employ one or more extension foresters. Other Federal, state and private agencies are consulted to make the program as effective as possible.

Farm forestry extension is a program of nonresident instruction carried on through leaflets, bulletins, circular letters, information in newspapers and farm journals; method-and-result demonstrations; visual aids, such as films, slides, and fair exhibits; radio and television; and through meetings and other contacts with farm workers. The state extension forestry specialists work closely with the county agricultural agents. Topics covered include farm woodland management, utilization of farm woodland products on the farm, marketing of products, timber estimating and appraisal, planting windbreaks and sbelterbelts, preservative treatment of farm timbers and fence posts, wildlife management, prevention of farm fires, and production of naval stores and maple syrup.

Important among last year's activities were demonstrations of tree-planting machines for establishment of windbreaks, shelterbelts, and future timber crops. There were also demonstrations in the use of the power saw. This labor-saving device has stimulated many farmers to do their own logging, and has aroused their interest in log grades, log scaling, potential markets and market prices, and in instituting good cutting practices in their farm woodlands.

Through the 4-H Club program, a special effort is being made to provide rural youth with an understanding and appreciation of forestry. In this work, 167,745 boys and girls last year received training in forestry, and 572,917 in fire and accident prevention.

· A review of the timber resources of the United States, which will take at least 2 years to complete, is being carried out by the U. S. Forest Service. It is planned to bring up to date information on timber resources, to reanalyze prospective requirements, supplies, and growth of timber, to appraise current timber-conservation programs, and chart a course for American forestry. Advice in planning the project and help in determining the facts of the forest situation will be sought from state and private forestry agencies, the wood industry, and conservation organizations. a The American Forestry Association has recently made available an up-to-date sequel to its comprehensive Forest Resources Appraisal, which was published in 1946 and was done concurrently and in association with the appraisal conducted by the U. S. Forest Service at the same time. The new report was made because of the very rapid changes of the past five years in American forests and forestry.

It is announced that for the first time all state and private forest lands on the Pacific Coast are under organized protection, but that 82 million acres (33 million ha.) elsewhere, mostly in the southern states, are still unprotected. Efforts to control insects and disease are still very much below needs. Current production of nursery stock is about 230 million seedlings, and there are more than 600 tree-planting machines in use, but only a start has been made upon the acreage that should be planted. Fully satisfactory watershed conditions exist on only a small portion of public lands, and a still smaller part of private forest lands. Only about one-fifth of the total private forest lands fall within the 12 states which have laws governing cutting standards on such lands.


· An article in the Russian periodical Lesnoye Khoziastro says that the plans of the Ministry of Forestry, made known in 1951, call for completing the mapping, surveying, anti inventorying of all the forests of the USSR (other than those belonging to the State and the collective farms) between 1951 and 1955. Standard (I instructions have been issued as it) the methods of surveying, estimating the economic possibilities of the different forests, etc. The field work is to be carried on from May to November and the computation of the data, in the off-season. It is evident that until these forests are surveyed and administered on a more or less permanent basis, all present available statistics as regards area, stand, cut and growth must be considered as mere approximations open to all kinds of interpretation. This is especially true of the amount of timber cut each year; published estimates of the present annual wood cut of the Soviet Union vary from 269 million to 660 million cubic meters. The FAO Yearbook of Forest Products Statistics, 1950, gives 269 million cubic meters as the total production for 1949. The statistical volume of the ECE/FAO Study of European Timber Trends (1913-1950) gives an estimated production in the USSR for 1950 of 600 million cubic meters, consisting of 320 million m3 of industrial wood and 280 million of fuelwood. These figures correspond to the trends in the growth of the timber industry observed during the last 30 years. In the twenties the annual consumption of timber of all kinds (including export) was around 200 million m3; in the late thirties, it rose to over 300 million m3; a present estimate of between 450-500 million m3, considering the recent accelerated growth of industry, does not seem an exaggeration. These figures do not include the timber cut in the so-called "local" forests, of which there are now mom than 100 million ha. At a cut of only 1 m3 per ha. a year, this would amount to a considerable figure. If the cut from these local forests is added to the previous figures, as well as that obtained by other Government agencies outside the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Forestry, the article concedes that the 600 million m3 estimated by FAO as the amount of timber cut each year in the entire USSR may not be very much out of line.

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