FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 446

FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 446

Improving Penaeus monodon
hatchery practices

Manual based on experience in India

Rome, 2007

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© FAO 2007

Improving Penaeus monodon hatchery practices. Manual based on experience in India.
FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 446. Rome, FAO. 2007.101p.


The successful farming of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in India is mainly due to the existence of some 300 hatcheries whose capacity to produce 12 000 million postlarvae (PL) annually has provided an assured supply of seed. However, the sustainability of the sector is still hampered by many problems, foremost among these being a reliance on wild-caught broodstock whose supply is limited both in quantity and in seasonal availability and that are often infected with pathogens. The current low quality of hatchery produced PL due to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and other pathogens entering the hatcheries via infected broodstock, contaminated intake water or other sources due to poor hatchery management practices, including inadequate biosecurity, is a major obstacle to achieving sustainable shrimp aquaculture in India and the Asia-Pacific region. Considering the major contribution of the tiger shrimp to global shrimp production and the economic losses resulting from disease outbreaks, it is essential that the shrimp-farming sector invest in good management practices for the production of healthy and quality seed.

This document reviews the current state of the Indian shrimp hatchery industry and provides detailed guidance and protocols for improving the productivity, health management, biosecurity and sustainability of the sector. Following a brief review of shrimp hatchery development in India, the major requirements for hatchery production are discussed under the headings: infrastructure, facility maintenance, inlet water quality and treatment, wastewater treatment, biosecurity, standard operating procedures (SOPS), the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach, chemical use during the hatchery production process and health assessment. Pre-spawning procedures covered include the use of wild, domesticated and specific pathogen free/ specific pathogen resistant (SPF/SPR) broodstock; broodstock landing centres and holding techniques; broodstock selection, transport, utilization, quarantine, health screening, maturation, nutrition and spawning; egg hatching; nauplius selection; egg/ nauplius disinfection and washing and holding, disease testing and transportation of nauplii. Post-spawning procedures covered include: larval-rearing unit preparation, larval rearing/health management, larval nutrition and feed management, important larval diseases, general assessment of larval condition, quality testing/selection of PL for stocking, PL harvest and transportation, nursery rearing, timing of PL stocking, use of multiple species in shrimp hatcheries, and documentation and record keeping. Information on the use of chemicals in shrimp hatcheries and examples of various forms for hatchery record keeping are included as Annexes.


Preparation of this document  (Download pdf 597 kb)
Abbreviations and Acronyms

1.  INTRODUCTION  (Download pdf 253 kb)
1.1   Shrimp hatchery development in india
2.  MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE  (Download Full 2pdf 875 kb)
2.1   Infrastructure   (Download pdf 212 kb)
2.2   Facility maintenance   (Download pdf 595 kb)
2.2.1  Maintenance of machinery
2.2.2  Regular cleaning and disinfection water,
          aeration and drainage pipelines
2.2.3  Maintenance of tanks
2.2.4  Maintenance of filters (slow sand, rapid, cartridge, UV/Ozone)
2.3   Inlet water quality and treatment  (Download 2.3 to 2.9 pdf 397 kb)
2.3.1  Quality of intake water and treatment options
2.3.2  Inlet water treatment protocol
2.3.3  Seawater intake
2.3.4  Sedimentation/sand filtration of inlet water
2.3.5  Disinfection of inlet water using chlorine
2.4   Wastewater treatment
2.5   Biosecurity
2.6   Standard operating procedures (Sops)
2.7   Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach
2.8   Chemical use during the hatchery production process
2.9   Health assessment
2.9.1  Level 1 health assessment techniques
2.9.2  Level 2 health assessment techniques
2.9.3  Level 3 health assessment techniques
3.  PRE-SPAWNING PROCEDURES  (Download Full 3 pdf 683 kb)
3.1   Wild broodstock  (Download pdf 413 kb)
3.1.1  The broodstock capture fishery
3.1.2  Broodstock quality
3.1.3  Pollution
3.2   Domesticated and SPF/SPR/SPT (Download 3.2 to 3.15 pdf 400 kb)
3.3   Broodstock landing centres and holding techniques
3.4   Broodstock selection and transport from landing/auction centres
3.5   Broodstock utilization
3.6   Broodstock quarantine
3.7   Broodstock health screening
3.8   Broodstock maturation
3.9   Broodstock nutrition
3.10 Broodstock spawning
3.11 Egg hatching
3.12 Nauplius selection
3.13 Egg/nauplius disinfection and washing
3.13.1  Eggs
3.13.2  Nauplii
3.14 Holding and disease testing of nauplii
3.15 Transportation of nauplii
4.  POST-SPAWNING PROCEDURES (Download Full 4 pdf 627 kb)
4.1   Larval-rearing unit preparation (Download 4.1 to 4.5 pdf 467 kb)
4.2   Larval rearing/health management
4.2.1  Stocking rate
4.2.2  Water exchange protocols
4.2.3  Siphoning of wastes
4.2.4  Aeration
4.2.5  Water quality monitoring
4.2.6  Chemical/antibiotic use
4.2.7  Use of probiotics to replace antibiotics
4.2.8  Responsible use of antibiotics
4.3   Larval nutrition and feed management
4.3.1  Use of live algae
4.3.2  Artemia use
4.3.3  Artificial feeds
4.4   Important larval diseases
4.4.1  Monodon baculovirus (MBV)
4.4.2  White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)
4.4.3  Baculoviral midgut gland necrosis virus (BMNV)
4.4.4  Vibriosis
4.4.5  Larval mycosis
4.4.6  Ciliate infestation
4.4.7  Swollen hind gut (SHG)
4.4.8  Diseases of unknown aetiology
4.5   General assessment of larval condition
4.5.1  Level 1 Health assessment observations
4.5.2  Level 2 Health assessment observations
4.5.3  Level 3 Health assessment techniques
4.6   Quality testing/selection of PL for stocking (Download 4.6 to 4.11 pdf 340 kb)
4.7   PL harvest and transportation
4.8   Nursery rearing
4.9   Timing of PL stocking
4.10 Use of multiple species in shrimp hatcheries
4.11 Documentation and record keeping
5.  REFERENCES (Download pdf 90 kb)

ANNEXES (Download pdf 226 kb)

Annex 1.     Persons responsible for compiling this document
Annex 2.     Chemicals and treatments used in shrimp aquaculture in India
Annex 3.     List of antibiotics and pharmacologically active substances
                   banned for use in aquaculture in India
Annex 4.     Quarantine/maturation tank daily data sheet
Annex 5.     Spawning/hatching tank daily data sheet
Annex 6.     Larval-rearing tank daily data sheet
Annex 7.     Level 1 larval health data sheet
Annex 8.     Level 2 larval health data sheet
Annex 9.     PL quality testing results sheet
Annex 10.   Research and development and extension requirements

BACK COVER (Download pdf 588 kb)