The glossary provides definitions of terms and acronyms relevant to the dairy sector.
stimulating or increasing secretion of milk.
a common term for an inflammation of the udder of animals or the resulting abnormal milk. More accurately referred to as mastitis.
related to the acid-secreting stomach (abomasum).
chemical, bacterial, or viral inflammation of the mucosa of the stomach and intestines.
the average age of parents when their offspring are born.
cows and sires are evaluated to determine their genetic values. Cows are appraised according to milk and component transmitting abilities and assigned cow indexes. Sires are appraised and assigned predicted differences for milk and components.
the average genetic merit of a population (usually a breed) at a specific period, which is used as a reference point to express a genetic difference from a base population.
the genetic value of the animal used in a breeding program. (also see breeding value).
genetic change per year for a trait in the population.
the actual genetic constitution (makeup) of an individual as determined by its germ plasm.
test to determine amount of fat in milk.
Gestation pregnancy (gravidity)
the period from conception to birth. The period of foetal development between fertilization of the ovum and birth of the offspring.
concentrated milk fat prepared by melting butter, decanting the fat after gravity separation from the serum, and driving off most of the remaining moisture by heating. About 1 percent moisture remains. It is used mostly in Asia and Africa.
lactating, or the act of yielding milk by a mammal.
producing or tending to produce goitre (enlargement of the thyroid gland).
a toxic yellow pigment found in cottonseed. Heat and pressure tend to bind it with protein and thereby render it safe for animal consumption.
GPD (Gaseous Products of Digestion)
these include the combustible gases produced in the digestive tract during fermentation of the ration. Methane constitutes the major proportion of the combustible gases produced by ruminants; however, non-ruminants also produce methane. Trace amounts of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, acetone, ethane, and hydrogen sulphide are also produced.
animals showing the predominant characteristics of a given breed. They usually have at least one purebred parent, ordinarily the bull.
Grade A milk (or fluid grade milk or market milk)
milk produced and processed under the strictest sanitary regulations prescribed, inspected, and approved by public health authorities. In most markets, milk used in any products intended for consumption in fluid form must meet this inspection standard.
Grade B milk (or manufacturing grade milk)
milk produced and processed with sanitary regulations prescribed, inspected, and approved by public health authorities for milk to be used for manufactured products only.
an animal possessing the distinct characteristic of a particular breed but not registered with a breed association.
the continued use of purebred sires on grade dams.
a magnesium-deficiency disease of cattle characterized by hyperirritability, muscular spasms of legs, and convulsions.
to consume standing vegetation, as by livestock or wild animals.
a term applied to the fresh uncured product. It refers to flavour, odour, body, and texture, not colour.
Green chop (fresh forage)
forages harvested (cut and chopped) in the field and hauled to livestock. This minimizes the loss of moisture, colour, nutrients, and wastage. Also called zero grazing or soilage.
Gross energy (GE)
the amount of heat, measured in calories, released when a substance is completely oxidized in a bomb calorimeter.
describes an animal that is large and well-developed for its age.