In my opinion, in developing countries the smallholders are not aware about the modern production technology of field crops cultivation. The farmers use toxic chemicals, degrade soils, and they don’t know the soil and water conservation practices. Moreover, the smallholders are cheated by the middlemen because they don’t have direct access to big markets to sell their produce. About 50-80% of the smallholder’s income goes to the middlemen. I recently completed a two years project (2017 and 2017) entitled: Transfer of Modern Production Technology of Field Crops Cultivation to Farmers through Field Days and Trainings in remote areas of two districts (Malakand and Swat). I trained farmers there in different union councils. I will also suggest the attention of governments to make good policies regarding smallholders in neglected/remote areas.
Livestock play important role in sustainable farming system. However, the genetics of our livestock are low yielding and therefore the farmers are not in much advantage by keeping livestock’s. Government should work and introduce high yielding livestock’s in the country for the betterment of farming community. On the other hand, the dominant cereal based cropping system in the country i.e. rice-wheat or maize-wheat reduce the fertility of the soils. Moreover, cereal based system results in low proteins per unit area and so the farmers are having malnutrition and poor health problem (e.g. Zn deficiency). The government must encourage the introduction of pulses in the cropping system which could increase soil fertility and protein per unit area. Here the farmers apply so many sprays on orchids (e.g. peach orchids) which is the major cause of hepatitis, skin problem, and cancer etc. The livestock health is also under severe stress due to lack of balanced and less feed availability.
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