Legal Services for Development



An increasing number of commercially exploited and managed aquatic species has been listed in the Appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), triggering the attention from the fisheries sector of States on how listing would impact on the management of the relevant fisheries. CITES regulates international trade in certain aquatic species, including those which are, and can be, commercially exploited and which are being managed by the fisheries sector. The fisheries sector legal frameworks will have to recognize and enable the various requirements provided for in CITES, including the making of non-detriment findings and ensuring that there is a designated management authority and scientific authority to take certain decisions in respect of listed commercially exploited and managed aquatic species.

 This sourcebook provides clarifications on the relationship of CITES with the fisheries sector and provides guidance on how national fisheries legal frameworks can optimize the implementation of CITES. The realisation of this sourcebook in 2020, designated as a “super year” for nature and biodiversity, represents a timely and useful contribution to fisheries management, by (i) raising awareness of CITES; (ii) enhancing comprehension of the CITES regime and its relationship with the fisheries sector and (iii) where a deliberate decision is made by a country to implement CITES through its national fisheries legal frameworks, providing guidance as to what do it and how to do it.

Animals - Fisheries - Plants

Land consolidation is a highly effective land management instrument that allows for the improvement of the structure of agricultural holdings and farms in a country, which increases their economic and social efficiency and brings benefits both to right holders as well as to society in general. Since land consolidation gives mobility to land ownership and other land rights, it may also facilitate the allocation of new areas with specific purposes other than agriculture, such as for public infrastructure or nature protection and restoration. Land consolidation instruments necessitate a thoroughly elaborated legal regulation that is integrated into the national legal framework.

 This legal guide provides detailed guidance on legislative issues regarding land consolidation in ways that align with Voluntary Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security and international human rights law. It focuses on land consolidation in rural areas and is based on regional good land consolidation legislative practices in Europe, primarily on analysis of the regulatory practices in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Serbia, Spain (Galicia) and Turkey. It also uses land consolidation regulatory practices in other European countries as a source of information.

This legal guide is published in collaboration with the FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia.

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A solid international consensus has emerged on the importance of nutrition for children’s development and well-being. At the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2), the Member States of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) committed to developing policies, programmes and initiatives to ensure healthy diets throughout the children’s life cycle, emphasizing the potential of schools as platforms for integrated action.

This Guide promotes a holistic and human rights-based approach to school food and nutrition, in which legislation is an indispensable tool to ensure the sustainability of public policy goals set by a country. In light of international law and standards, it provides practical information and guidance to develop or strengthen national legislation to improve food security and nutrition in schools as well as community development. The Guide presents a range of regulatory options and legislative examples of state practice that may contribute to building sound and coherent legal frameworks for school food and nutrition. It is a useful resource for law practitioners, policymakers, parliamentarians, and all actors who are involved in the design, implementation, or monitoring of school programmes and policies and most particularly, for those interested in taking legislative action (law-making or law reform).

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Food Safety

This guide examines the responsibilities of private sector lawyers in avoiding and addressing, preventing and mitigating adverse human rights impacts on tenure right holders when advising on agricultural investments. These responsibilities arise under international standards for the protection of legitimate tenure rights, including the UN FAO Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the context of national food security (VGGT), as considered within the framework of international human rights laws which underpin aspects of those standards.

In the light of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGP), the guide considers the dual responsibility of lawyers in this context: (1) through the impact of these standards on the professional duties of the lawyer (including in-house counsel) towards the investor client and (2) through the impact on the law firm’s responsibilities as a business in its own right, in the light of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) commitments. The guide examines the requirements for due diligence in this context and makes a number of recommendations to promote compliance with UNGP on behalf both of the investor client and of the law firm, considered as a business in its own right.

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