Legal Services for Development



Prevenir y reducir las pérdidas y desperdicios de alimentos es esencial para avanzar en la promoción de sistemas alimentarios sostenibles y lograr los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de la Agenda 2030. En particular, la meta 12.3 que busca reducir a la mitad las pérdidas y desperdicios de alimentos en todas las fases de la cadena productiva al año 2030.

Entre las distintas estrategias adoptadas para hacer frente a esta situación, los esfuerzos normativos desplegados por los Estados revisten la mayor importancia. Con el objeto de contribuir a estos fines, el presente estudio legislativo, relativo a los avances legislativos sobre prevención y reducción de pérdidas y desperdicios de alimentos en América Latina y el Caribe, permitió constituir un repertorio regional de leyes y proyectos de ley presentados sobre la materia.

El análisis de estos textos normativos ha permitido establecer un conjunto de 18 criterios de clasificación en los que se pueden organizar las diversas medidas adoptadas. Tales criterios se desarrollan a fondo en el estudio y se ilustran mediante ejemplos extraídos de la propia normativa estudiada. La información obtenida permitió sugerir recomendaciones para continuar avanzando en la lucha contra las pérdidas y desperdicios de alimentos desde el ámbito normativo.

Latin America

Many national legal frameworks still do not include laws and measures specifically intended to tackle climate change in the agriculture sectors. However, national laws and institutional frameworks are necessary for good governance and can operate to support the implementation of national policy and international commitments, including on climate change. Indeed, Target 16.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals calls for the promotion of the rule of law, and the assurance of equal access to justice for all. This is both an important stand-alone goal and an enabling goal for the realization of the transformative 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development‎. Furthermore, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) sees appropriately designed, informed and responsive national legal and institutional frameworks as key to supporting the implementation of countries’ commitments under the 2015 Paris Agreement, as well as their Nationally Determined Contribution in the food, agriculture and natural resources sectors.

Climate change presents multiple challenges and it cannot be addressed effectively in silos. Attention must be paid not only to specific agriculture sectors, but also to governance areas that are interconnected with agriculture, such as public spending and investment, social protection and rural development. Efforts should be coordinated with the engagement of civil society, including the legal profession, vulnerable groups and the private sector.

This Study addresses the principal expressions of the food and agriculture sector (crops and livestock agriculture, forestry and fisheries), looking at the critical cross-cutting issues and their integration into agriculture law. It provides a comprehensive overview of the legal and institutional issues to consider when working towards preparing the agriculture sector for the challenges of climate change.


This book encompasses a broad range of natural resource sectors, with discrete chapters on water, land, forestry, fisheries, mining, petroleum and agriculture. Given this broad range of areas, the focus of the publication is narrowed to provide an overarching holistic perspective that is supportive of a systems-thinking approach. Recognizing that there are many useful publications elsewhere that detail extensively the specific regulatory elements of sound laws in the respective areas, this book offers the specific prism of highlighting approaches that embrace the pillars of sustainable development, i.e. approaches that recognize and are informed by economic, social and environmental considerations and impacts.


The right to water emerged in the Noughties primarily as the right to domestic water for drinking, washing and cooking, and was closely related to the right to sanitation, both of which are seen as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living.


The general labour and employment laws of many countries do not necessarily take into account the special circumstances of those who work in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors, whereas legislation governing these sectors tend not to integrate appropriate labour standards. This becomes more of a concern where there is a general weakness in inter-sectoral and inter-institutional coordination mechanisms.


FAO’s previous contribution to the development of contract farming saw the publication in 2015 of the UNIDROIT/FAO/IFAD Legal Guide on Contract Farming, which focused on the bilateral relationship between an agricultural producer and a contractor. This Legislative Study develops that research and focuses on the regulatory frameworks for contract farming, aiming to highlight different possible approaches for different contexts.

Africa - Africa and Near East - Asia - Europe
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