A baseline survey (for the year 2000) of agricultural water
use covering all aspects of agriculture in each country
of the Nile basin, including estimates of water productivity
by category of use. The survey includes a detailed review
and maps of population, land use, cropping patterns in irrigation,
estimate of water use in rainfed and irrigated agriculture,
and an assessment of current water development facilities,
together with estimates of water use in other sectors.
A review of available information on the potential impact
of irrigation on crop production, by country and by farming
system, and assessment of irrigation and rainfed water productivity
for the year 2000.
Projections for 2030 of demand for food and other produce
in the countries of the basin, with estimates of arable
land expansion in irrigated and rainfed agriculture, yields
of major crops, cropping patterns, and cropping intensities.
- Results of a set of scenarios on water development for
agriculture, with estimates of water productivity in each
region, and implications for the basin’s water balance.
is by far the main user of water in the Nile basin and therefore
requires careful attention. Taken in its wider context including
fisheries, forestry and livestock, the agricultural sector,
with its influential water use, is linked to a range of
social and environmental factors such as food security,
poverty alleviation, conservation of the natural environment
and biodiversity, all of prime importance for national and
basin-wide development policies.
of economic development in the Nile basin have often narrowly
focused on the need to develop a physical potential, with
little or no reference to the demand for agricultural products
or the added value of irrigated agriculture in agricultural
countries of the region have a high demographic growth rate.
It is expected that the population of the basin, which was
about 160 million in 1990, will grow to 300 million by 2010
and 550 million in 2030. With some of the countries being
among the poorest in the world, the economies of the region
are expected to continue to depend heavily on subsistence
agriculture for the largest share of their GDP.
agricultural development, in all countries of the basin,
will play an important role and have a substantial impact
on the basin’s water balance. Inversely, water management
policies will impact agriculture substantially and their
implications at national or basin levels need to be well
understood. In a context of increasing water scarcity, options
for water productivity increase need to be well understood
by all stakeholders so that water can be allocated to the
uses that would be of highest value for the whole basin
community while guaranteeing equity in access to and sustainable
management of the resources.
survey is intended to provide stakeholders and decision
makers in the Nile Basin with a thorough assessment of the
linkage between agriculture and water in the basin. In particular,
the project is collecting and analyzing information on the
current situation of agriculture - including rainfed and
irrigated agriculture, forests, aquaculture and fisheries,
rangeland management and livestock development. It will
place this information within the overall socio-economic
and demographic context of the region, and will develop
projections of demand for agricultural produce and subsequent
agricultural development between 2000 and 2030. These projections
will be used to assess the impact of agricultural development
on the water balance of the Nile basin.
particular, the survey is expected to answer the following
What is, in each country, the current status of agricultural
water use, the importance of water in agriculture and the
impact of agriculture on the water balance?
What are the trends in agricultural water demand, main drivers
and projections for 2030 and implications for water management
in the Nile basin?
will also contribute to answer the following questions:
What are the social and institutional factors affecting
access to water and reliability of water supply for agriculture
and domestic needs in rural areas?
What are the opportunities for enhancing water productivity
To what extent improved water management in agriculture
can help alleviating rural poverty?