Water productivity means growing more food or gaining more benefits with less water.
To feed a growing and wealthier population with more diversified diets will require more water for agriculture on an average annual basis. There is considerable scope for improving physical water productivity, but not everywhere.
Increasing water productivity, especially the value produced per unit of water, can be an important pathway for poverty reduction in water productivity.
The adoption of techniques to improve water productivity requires an enabling policy and institutional environment that aligns the incentives of producers, resource managers, and society and provides a mechanism for dealing with tradeoffs.
An assessment of the potential for reducing water needs and increasing production and
values requires an understanding of basic biological and hydrological crop-water relations.
Answering the question of how much more water will be needed for agriculture requires
understanding the connections among water, food, and diets. The amount of water that
we consume when eating food depends on diet and on the water productivity of the agriculture production system