Agroecology Knowledge Hub

Efficiency : innovative agroecological practices produce more using less external resources

Increased resource-use efficiency is an emergent property of agroecological systems that carefully plan and manage diversity to create synergies between different system components. For example, a key efficiency challenge is that less than 50 percent of nitrogen fertilizer added globally to cropland is converted into harvested products and the rest is lost to the environment causing major environmental problems.

Agroecological systems improve the use of natural resources, especially those that are abundant and free, such as solar radiation, atmospheric carbon and nitrogen. By enhancing biological processes and recycling biomass, nutrients and water, producers are able to use fewer external resources, reducing costs and the negative environmental impacts of their use. Ultimately, reducing dependency on external resources empowers producers by increasing their autonomy and resilience to natural or economic shocks.

One way to measure the efficiency of integrated systems is by using Land Equivalent Ratios (LER). LER compares the yields from growing two or more components (e.g. crops, trees, animals) together with yields from growing the same components in monocultures. Integrated agroecological systems frequently demonstrate higher LERs.

Agroecology thus promotes agricultural systems with the necessary biological, socio-economic and institutional diversity and alignment in time and space to support greater efficiency.


In 2019, the South Korean organic movement in partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs submitted a proposal to the Ministry of Economy and Finance. This was for the provision of environmentally-friendly food[1] to pregnant women and new mothers in Seoul, Gyeonggi and Jeonnam Province, and twenty-three...
Republic of Korea
The current public health crisis has shed light on one of food systems’ most pressing challenges: reaching sustainable food security for all in a way that meets environmental and socio-economic sustainability. It has further confirmed that the logic of industrial agriculture has led the food systems down an unsustainable path...
Journal article
In this latest book in the Reclaiming Diversity and Citizenship Series published by the Centre for Agroecology, Water and Resilience, Zhenzhong Si offers a new perspective on how to shift from industrial agriculture to diversified agroecological systems in China. This book draws upon the framework of the IPES-Food report (from Uniformity to Diversity) to review...
The Skoura palm grove is located in the province of Ouarzazate, an Arab enclave in a Berber region where the population lives mainly from oasis agriculture. The project was born of a dozen family farms' desire to organize themselves to enhance the value of their olive oil production. The cooperative has...
Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) have been established to help the hundreds of smallholder farmers in India who are unable to gain cost-prohibitive certifications for organic farming. These systems allow access to a fair and transparent market system and grant farmers a direct stake holding in the supply chain of clean...
Case study