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This report is a further elaboration of the risk analysis process. The interaction of risk managers and risk assessors is considered in detail. The diagram (Fig. 1) highlights two points in the risk management cycle where interaction with risk assessors occurs. However, interaction may be necessary at other places as well. Risk assessment and cost benefit analysis are independent; science based activities conducted to provide the basis for risk management decisions. Risk assessment and risk management activities are typically not linear processes but iterative and fluid. Frequently, the risk management goals and the risk assessment activities will be revised and refined based on the scientific findings as the work progresses
Objectives: The consultation examined the technical documents on hazard characterization and exposure assessment of Salmonella spp. in broilers and eggs and L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods, and the draft guidelines on hazard characterization with the following objectives: 1. To provide scientific advice to FAO and WHO Member Countries and Codex on the risk assessment of Salmonella spp. in broilers and eggs and L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. 2. To provide guidance to FAO and WHO Member Countries and Codex in the form of practical guidelines and methodology for hazard characterization of microbial pathogens. 3. To identify the knowledge gaps and information requirements needed to complete the above-mentioned risk assessments
This manuscript is to document the procedures developed by JECFA for the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs in food. It includes in many instances, the historical development leading to the current procedures. In consolidating the pertinent evaluation procedures, it is intended to provide guidance to present and future members of JECFA and to provide transparency on how the food safety assessments performed by JECFA for residues of veterinary drugs in food are conducted. While informative for establishing ADIs and recommending MRLs, it is not intended to be a proscriptive document on how Member Governments might develop their national regulations for residues of veterinary drugs in food.
Risk communication was defined by the March 1995 Consultation on the Application of Risk Analysis to Food Safety Issues as "an interactive process of exchange of information and opinion on risk among risk assessors, risk managers, and other interested parties". The practical application of risk communication in relation to food safety involves all aspects of communications among risk assessors, risk managers and the public. This includes the mechanisms of delivery; message content; timeliness of the communication; the availability and use of supporting materials and information; and the purpose, credibility and meaningfulness of the communication. With increased public concern regarding food safety, greater demands are placed on risk communicators to involve the public and other interested parties in an interactive dialogue...
The globalization and growth of international trade in fish and fishery products in recent years has made these products one of the most important items traded in terms of value. Concerns regarding the safety of these products has prompted the emergence of a number of new regulations such as a zero-tolerance policy for Listeria monocytogenes in fishery products or the use of a risk based approach to establish maximum limits for Listeria in these products. The paper describes the findings of the FAO Expert Consultation on the Trade Impact of Listeria in Fish Products, held in the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA from 17 to 20 May 1999. It documents the current scientific knowledge regarding the risks of listeriosis in...
The Codex Committee on Residue of Veterinary Drugs in Foods (CCRVDF) at its 11th Session recommended a Harmonization Meeting on residue definitions and other issues relating to the use of chemicals both as veterinary drugs and as pesticides because of the differences in the evaluation processes by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) leading to different MRLs for the same chemical. The Meeting was held in Rome, Italy from 1-2 February 1999. The main task of the meeting was to have informal exchange of information related to the same chemical which is of interest to both parties, to come up with only one recommendation on definitions of terms and MRL, used...
The manual is structured to provide essential information in a standardized, logical and systematic manner while adhering to effective teaching and learning strategies. It is composed of three sections. Section 1 reviews principles and methods of training; Section 2 introduces and elucidates the Codex Alimentarius General Principles of Food Hygiene; and Section 3 explains the HACCP system and its implementation. Each section is made up of specific training modules which can be combined and customized to meet the specific needs of the students. FAO has prepared this manual in an effort to harmonize the approach to training in the HACCP system based on the already harmonized texts and guidelines of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. It is clear that HACCP systems...
Risk analysis is widely recognised as the fundamental methodology underlying the development of food safety standards. As recognised in the 1995 consultation, risk analysis is composed of three separate but integrated elements, namely risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. That consultation recognised risk communication as an interactive process of exchange of information and opinion on risk among risk assessors, risk managers, and other interested parties. Risk management is defined within Codex as the process of weighing policy alternatives in the light of the results of risk assessment and, if required, selecting and implementing appropriate control options, including regulatory measures. The outcome of the risk management process, as undertaken by Committees within the Codex Alimentarius system, is the development of...
On 13 and 14 November 1995, a FAO Technical Consultation on Food Allergies wasconvened at an Italian Government Ministry of Health facility in Rome, Italy. The consultation comprised thirteen experts on food allergies and was international in scope as the participants came from nine different countries, both developed and developing.