Following my two earlier posts about resilience in the context of social-ecological systems, I attach a policy brief written in 2013 that provides more information on the science of resilience in social-ecological systems and briefly analyses three cases from different parts of Africa. One aspect of these studies is the effects of colonial and post colonial governance on landscapes and rural poverty that have to be addressed as part of a long term project that either restores the landscape to something like its original state; or transforms it into something new. Other important aspects are the long term vision of those who live on the land, the willingness of development agents to work with people on the land, and national government policies that support the emergence of local self-sufficiency and adaptive capacity.