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Issue paper

2022

Agricultural mechanization and child labour in developing countries. Background study

The FAO-IFPRI study, focuses on the use of tractors because they are among the most versatile farm mechanization tools and are universal power sources for all other driven implements and equipment in agriculture, with significant potential to replace animal draught power and human power, including children’s muscle power. Tractor use is typically also the first type of machine-powered equipment in use at lower levels of agricultural development, the context where most child labour is found.Mechanization is mostly assumed to reduce child labour, as it is expected to be labour saving in general. Yet, this is not always the case, as [...]

Briefs

2021

Will promotion of agricultural mechanization help prevent child labour? Policy brief

The FAO-IFPRI study, of which this policy brief is a summary, focuses on the use of tractors because they are among the most versatile farm mechanization tools and are universal power sources for all other driven implements and equipment in agriculture, with significant potential to replace animal draught power and human power, including children’s muscle power. Tractor use is typically also the first type of machine-powered equipment in use at lower levels of agricultural development, the context where most child labour is found.Mechanization is mostly assumed to reduce child labour, as it is expected to be labour saving in general. [...]

Case study

2021

Effectiveness and duplicability of the Youth Inspiring Youth in Agriculture Initiative. Lessons learned from Uganda

Agricultural production relies heavily on migrant labour across geographies and production systems, from large-scale plantations growing food crops for global supply chains to small-scale pastoralist families following their herds to new pastures depending on seasons. Much of the migration is seasonal, filling peak labour demands, such as during harvest. Hence, stable agri-food systems that can contribute to fulfilling Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 on zero hunger are intrinsically intertwined with migrant workers’ lives and working conditions.While migration can provide families with new opportunities, it can also pose challenges to children migrating with their parents or left behind. Seasonal agricultural migration [...]

Issue paper

2021

Seasonal migration and child labour in agriculture. Background paper

Agricultural production relies heavily on migrant labour across geographies and production systems, from large-scale plantations growing food crops for global supply chains to small-scale pastoralist families following their herds to new pastures depending on seasons. Much of the migration is seasonal, filling peak labour demands, such as during harvest. Hence, stable agri-food systems that can contribute to fulfilling Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 on zero hunger are intrinsically intertwined with migrant workers’ lives and working conditions.While migration can provide families with new opportunities, it can also pose challenges to children migrating with their parents or left behind. Seasonal agricultural migration [...]

Issue paper

2021

Tackling child labour in fisheries and aquaculture. Background paper

The global aquatic food industry, long under scrutiny over environmental sustainability concerns, has also come under increased scrutiny within the past decade over poor working conditions and severe human rights violations, including widespread use of forced labour and child labour. However, there is limited research and documentation available on child labour in fishing, aquaculture and fish and aquatic food processing globally. Much of the available evidence is centred on labour conditions in global supply chains. However, due to higher levels of informality, limited law enforcement capacity, and so on, it is more likely that children produce fish and aquatic-sourced foods [...]

Issue paper

2021

Tackling child labour through decent youth employment in agri-food systems. Background paper

Poverty reduction and food security are intrinsically linked. Both depend on sustainable food systems and safe and sustainable agricultural practices. Similarly, poverty reduction and sustainable food systems can only be realized if those producing food, for their own consumption and for local and global supply chains, have decent working conditions and stable livelihoods.Hence, it is essential that young people above the minimum age for employment are protected, offered relevant technical and vocational training, and able to work in safe, non-exploitative agricultural work. Working towards a successful school-to-work transition for the 15-17 years age cohort goes hand in hand with the [...]

Briefs

2021

FAO COVID-19 Response and Recovery Programme - Economic inclusion and social protection to reduce poverty. Pro-poor COVID-19 responses for an inclusive post-pandemic economic recovery

The COVID-19 pandemic is, directly and indirectly, impacting health and well-being around the globe. Illness and containment measures are compounding the social and economic disadvantages of the most vulnerable in society. These social and economic impacts stand to cause devastating setbacks to efforts to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Pervasive inequalities between rural and urban inhabitants, rich and poor, women and men will exacerbate these effects. People in areas impacted by severe climate change, conflict, forced displacement, and migration will be even more vulnerable.Vulnerable groups include rural women, youth and children, indigenous people, the elderly, and people with [...]

Issue paper

2020

Gender dimensions of child labour in agriculture. Background paper

Child labour undermines efforts to eradicate hunger, malnutrition and poverty for present and future generations. According to the latest estimates, at the beginning of 2020 there were 160 million children involved in child labour globally, corresponding to almost one in ten of all children worldwide. Of this total, 70 percent were engaged in agriculture, making the sector theprimary source of child labour. Therefore, the progress or failure of SDG 8.7 – “eradicating child labour globally by 2025” – will be decided in agriculture.In accordance with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ Framework on Ending Child Labour in [...]

Briefs

2020

The International Partnership for Cooperation on Child Labour in Agriculture statement on the impact of COVID-19 on child labour in agriculture

The members of the International Partnership for Cooperation on Child Labour in Agriculture (IPCCLA), namely FAO, ILO, IFAD, IUF, IFPRI has released a joint statement on the occasion of the World Day Against Child Labour 2020, focusing on the Impact of COVID-19 on child labour in agriculture. The statement reflects on the potential impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the prevalence of child labour in agriculture and the potentially lasting deleterious effects on child growth and development, urging for a call for immediate nationally and internationally coordinated responses. Click here for more publications on COVID19

Issue paper

2020

FAO framework on ending child labour in agriculture

The purpose of the FAO’s framework is to guide the Organization and its personnel in the integration of measures addressing child labour within FAO’s typical work, programmes and initiatives at global, regional and country levels. It aims to enhance compliance with organization’s operational standards, and strengthen coherence and synergies across the Organization and with partners. The FAO framework is primarily targeted at FAO as an organization, including all personnel in all geographic locations. But the framework is also relevant for FAO’s governing bodies and Member States, and provides guidance and a basis for collaboration with development partners. The framework is [...]
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