The Right to Food around the Globe


The Constitution of the Kingdom of Eswatini does not explicitly guarantee the right to adequate food.

The Kingdom of Eswatini has become a State party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) in 2004 by way of accession.


Other pertinent provisions for the realization of the right to adequate food

Article 32.4: "Parliament shall enact laws to - a. provide for the right of persons to work under satisfactory, safe and healthy conditions; b. ensure equal payment for equal work without discrimination.”

Article 59: “(1) The State shall take all necessary action to ensure that the national economy is managed in such a manner as to maximise the rate of economic development and to secure the maximum welfare, freedom and happiness of every person in Swaziland and to provide adequate means of livelihood and suitable employment and public assistance to the needy. (2) The State shall, in particular, take all necessary steps to establish a sound and healthy economy whose underlying principles shall include – (e) the recognition that the most secure democracy is the one that assures the basic necessities of life for its people as a fundamental duty.”

Article 60: “(1) The State shall guarantee and respect institutions which are charged by the State with responsibility for protecting and promoting human rights and freedoms by providing those institutions with adequate resources to function effectively. (2) The State shall guarantee and respect the independence of non-governmental organisations which protect and promote human rights. (3) The State shall give the highest priority to the enactment of legislation for economic empowerment of citizens.”


Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) – 1948

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) – 1966

Status: Accession (2004)

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) – 1979

Status: Accession (2004)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) – 1989

Status: Ratification (1995)

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) – 2006

Status: Ratification (2012)

Legislation and policies recognizing the right to adequate food

Guidance on how to progressively realise the human right to adequate food in contexts of national food security has been provided by the Right to Food Guidelines, adopted by the FAO Council and endorsed by the Committee on World Food Security.

Considering that the human right to adequate food can be implemented through a variety of legal and policy actions, we invite you to visit the FAOLEX Country Profile database for a wide-ranging collection of measures that have been taken at national level. Some of the documents you may find are legislation and policies that touch on a number of relevant Guidelines, such as those on Access to resources and assets (Guideline 8), Food safety and consumer protection (Guideline 9), Support for vulnerable groups (Guideline 13) and Natural and human-made disasters (Guideline 16).

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