Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) Toolbox

Silviculture in Natural Forests

Welcome to the Silviculture in Natural Forests Module. This module is intended for forest owners and managers wishing to design, implement, monitor and evaluate silvicultural practices to enhance the productivity, resilience and value of natural forests.

The module provides information and links to tools and case studies, to guide users in planning silvicultural interventions in natural forests at the forest management unit level.

Barrett, J.W. (ed). 1995. Regional silviculture of the United States. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Dawkins, H.C. and Philip, M.S. 1998. Tropical moist forest silviculture and management: a history of success and failure. Wallingford, UK, CAB International.

De Graaf, N.R., Koning, D. & Spierings, M. 1996. Some conditions and possibilities for successful application of the CELOS management system. In: The Guyana Shield: recent developments and alternatives for sustainable development. BOS Newsletter, 15(2)34: 74–83.

De Graaf, N.R., Filius, A.M. & Huesca-Santos, A.R. 2003. Financial analysis of sustained forest management for timber perspectives for application of the CELOS management system in Brazilian Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management, 177: 287–299.

Dykstra, D. & Heinrich, R. 1996. FAO Model code of forest harvesting practice. Rome, FAO. 85pp.

Fredericksen, T.S. & Putz, F.E. 2003. Silvicultural intensification for tropical forest conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 12: 1445–1453.

González Molina, J.M. 2005. Introducción a la selvicoltura general. Universidad de León, Secretariato de Publicaciones.

Gunter, S., Weber, M., Stimm, B. & Mosandl, R. (eds). 2011. Silviculture in the tropics. Springer.

Hutchinson, I.D. 1988. Points of departure for silviculture in humid tropical forests. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 67(3): 223–230.

Hutchinson, I.D. 1991. Diagnostic sampling to orient silviculture and management in natural tropical forest. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 67(3): 223–230.

Hutchinson, I.D. 1993. Techniques for silviculture and management in natural tropical forests, logged and secondary. In J. Parrota and M. Kanashiro (eds.), Proceedings of the International symposium/workshop management and rehabilitation of degraded lands and secondary forests in Amazonia. Santarem - Para, Brazil. 18-22 April 1993.

ITTO. 2002. ITTO guidelines for the restoration, management and rehabilitation of degraded and secondary tropical forests. ITTO Policy Development Series No. 13.

ITTO/IUCN. 2008. Guidelines for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in tropical timber production forests. ITTO Policy Development Series No. 117. ITTO, Yokohama, Japan.

Johns, A.G. 1997. Timber production and biodiversity conservation in tropical rain forests. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, U.K

Johnson P.S., S.R. Shifley & Rogers, R. 2007. The ecology and silviculture of oaks. CABI Publishing.

Kleine, M. 1997. The theory and application of a systems approach to silvicultural decision-making. Forest Research Centre, Forestry Department Sabah, Malaysia.

Lamprecht, H. 1989. Silviculture in the tropics: tropical forest ecosystems and their tree species—possibilities and methods for their long-term utilization. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit.

Louman B., Quiroz, D. and Nilsson, M. 2001. Silvicultura en bosques latifoliados húmedos con énfasis en América Central. Turrialba, Costa Rica, CATIE. 

Mathews, J.D. 1989. Silvicultural systems.  Clarendon Press, Oxford. 284 p.

Mayhew, J.E. & Newton, A.C. 1998. The silviculture of Mahogany. CAB International, Oxford, U.K.

Peters, C.M. 1994. Sustainable harvest of non-timber plant resources in the tropical moist forest: An ecological primer. Washington D.C. Biodiversity Support Program & World Wildlife Fund.

Peters, C.M. 1996. The ecology and management of non-timber forest resources. World Bank Technical Paper Number 322. Washington, D.C., USA.

Putz, F.E. 1994. Approaches to sustainable forest management. CIFOR Working Paper No. 4, Sept. 1994.

Putz, F.E., Redford, K.H., Robinson, J.G., Fimbel, R. & Blate, G.M. 2000. Biodiversity conservation in the context of tropical forest management. Environment Department Biodiversity Series Impact Studies Paper No. 75. Washington, DC, The World Bank.

Putz, F.E. 2000. The economics of home-grown forestry. Ecological Economics, 32: 9–14.

Putz, F.E., Blate, G.M., Redford, K.H., Fimbel, R., Robinson, J.G. & Fimbel, R. 2001. Biodiversity conservation in the context of tropical forest management. Conservation Biology, 15:7–20.

Sabogal, C. 2005. Site-level restoration strategies for degraded primary forest. In Restoring forest landscapes: an introduction to the art and science of forest landscape restoration, pp. 81–89. ITTO Technical Series No. 23. Yokohama, Japan, International Tropical Timber Organization.

Sabogal, C. 2005. Site-level strategies for managing secondary forests . In Restoring forest landscapes: an introduction to the art and science of forest landscape restoration, pp. 91–100. ITTO Technical Series No. 23. Yokohama, Japan, International Tropical Timber Organization.

Sabogal, C. & Nasi, R. 2005. Chapter 52: Restoring overlogged tropical forests. In S. Mansourian, D. Vallauri and N. Dudley (in cooperation with WWF International). Forest restoration in landscapes: beyond planting trees, pp. 361–369. New York, USA, Springer.

Sabogal, C., Pokorny, B., Silva, J.N.M., Carvalho, J.O.P., Zweede, J. & Puerta, R. 2009. Diretrizes técnicas de manejo para produção madeireira mecanizada em florestas de terra firme na Amazônia Brasileira. Belém, Brazil, Embrapa Amazônia Oriental.

Sheperd, G. 1992. Managing Africa’s tropical dry forests: a review of indigenous methods. ODI Agricultural Occasional Paper No. 14. London, Overseas Development Institute.

Smith, D.M., Larson, B.C., Kelty, M.J. & Ashton, P.M.S. 1997. The practice of silviculture: applied forest ecology. 9th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 

Steege, T.H., Boot, R. G. A.,  Brouwer, L. C.,  Caesar, J. C.,  Ek, R. C., Hammond, D. S., Haripersaud, P. P., Hout, P., Jetten, V. G & Kekem, A. J. 1996. Ecology and logging in a tropical rain forest in Guyana. With recommendations for forest management. Tropenbos Series No. 14. Wageningen, the Netherlands, Tropenbos Foundation.  

Sungay. 1997. Analysis of silvicultural systems for the management of broadleaved hardwood forest in Bhutan. A case from Korila Forest Management Unit (KFMU). MSc. University of New Brunswick, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management. 89 pp. 

Wadsworth, F.H. & Zweede, J.C. 2006. Liberation: acceptable production of tropical forest timber. Forest Ecology and Management, 233: 45–51.

Weidelt, H.-J. & Banaag, V.S. 1982. Aspects of management and silviculture of Philippine dipterocarp forests. Philippine-German Rain forest Development Project. Eschborn, Germany, GTZ.

Wyatt-Smith, J. 1963. Manual of Malayan silviculture for inland forests. Malayan Forest Record, 23, Part III.

Web links ITTO - Project search. 2004-2014. Last accessed 23.09.2014.