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Appendixes

Archive: 1999 Session - Appendix 7

1999 Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of EuFMD

 

Main Activities Regarding Type A and Type Asia 1 FMD in Turkey

S. Ismet GRHAN
Sap Enstits (FMD Institute), PO Box 714, 06044 Ankara TURKEY

During the last twelve months 2 serotypes (A and O) of FMDV caused totally 44 outbreaks in Turkey (Table 1). O type was responsible for most of them. A type case was not reported in the first half of 1999.

 

Table 1: FMD outbreaks in the last 12 months.

 

The number of animals infected with A type FMDV and susceptible to infection is listed in Table 2.

 

Table 2: A type FMDV cases in 1999.

 

In 1999, 6 vesicular epithelium and 1 tissue culture supernatant collected from the infected animals in the field were sent to Pirbright IAH for strain identification. Although the dendogram of the molecular analysis is not available for the moment, the primary results of ELISA indicate that, the A 99 circulating in Turkey is no more close to A/97 and A/98 nor to A Mahmatli 65 (r1 < 0,2), but type O is still acceptable with O Manisa 69 (r1 = 0,4).

 

Table 3: FMDV samples tested in Pirbright IAH.

 

Following A Iran 96 outbreaks in Turkey, at the beginning of the last year, an emergency vaccination programme was applied by the aid of EU in Trace. 311 472 bovine and 636 550 small ruminants were vaccinated with monovalent A Iran 96 FMD vaccine for that purpose. A serosurvey was constructed to examine the efficacy of the vaccination campaign by General Directorate of Protection and Control (GDPC), The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA), in Turkey and EuFMD Committee. Triplicate serum samples (prevaccination, 28 and 90 days post vaccination) were tested at Sap Enstitêsê, Ankara. The results showed that the seroprevalence was 67.16% for large ruminants and 42.39% for small ruminants.
Two batches (50.000 + 250.000 monovalent doses) of A/ An 98 (vaccine strain of Ankara Sap Enstitêsê, homologous to A/ Iran 96) FMD vaccine were produced and formulated as bivalent (A + O) at Ankara Sap Enstitêsê this year. Vaccine production is still going on. Beforehand 3.200.000 bivalent FMD vaccine was produced with AÔMah 65 and OÔMan 69 strains.
A serosurvey has already been planned by GDPC and Sap Enstitêsê to examine the antibody levels of the livestock after the second round of vaccination (autumn campaign) in 1999. But, according to information that we received from Pirbright IAH, which is mentioning the difference of the type A field virus from the vaccine strain, the protection level of A Ankara 98-vaccine strain will not be high enough. So probably this working plan could be postponed to next campaign.
Measures Against Potential Risk of Asia 1 Type FMD Outbreak:
In September Ô99 type Asia 1 FMDV outbreaks in Iran were notified by OIE with an emergency case message.
The geographical situation of Turkey is always a risk factor for the dissemination of the contagious diseases mainly from the eastern and south-eastern neighbours. Illegal animal movement at the borders is a reality. Inland animal movement is also from east to the western part of the country in general.
As the exotic strains of type A, spreading of type Asia 1 FMDV is always considered as a potential risk for Turkey. That is why, besides types A and O, all the FMDV suspicious samples sent to Ankara Sap Enstitêsê are also tested for type Asia 1 with complement fixation test (CFT) since 1974. Additionally, a small batch of monovalent Asia 1 FMD vaccine is locally produced every two years and kept in cold rooms for emergency stock.
Following the above mentioned notification of OIE, series of control measures were taken:

 

1. At the Sap Enstitêsê, Ankara:

  • Production of one batch type Asia 1 FMD vaccine.

  • Potency control of the type Asia 1 FMD vaccine produced in 1997.

  • Testing of all FMD suspicious samples from the field for type Asia 1 FMDV with ELISA besides CFT.

  • Serum collection randomly in the main markets or slaughterhouses from the animals come from the eastern Turkey to test for anti-type Asia 1 FMDV antibody.

2. In the field:

  • Training of the technical personnel mainly in the provinces close to Iran and Iraq by stressing the importance and risks of the type Asia 1 epidemics. In relation to this a team composed by a specialist veterinarian from Sap Enstitêsê, Ankara and an epidemiologist from GDPC were employed with training to the veterinarians and veterinary technicians in Van province who are still working in that area.

  • The Minister of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has recently circulated an instruction to the governors of five provinces on the Iran and Iraq border and informed the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Regional Governor of Extraordinary Situation (OHAL) for the emergency action plan. From the point of view series of measures were taken, such as:

  • Disenfection of all vehicles passing through the borders,

  • Closing the animal markets and not allowing the dispatch of the livestock from these provinces,

  • More strict security and traffic controls of the trucks on the overland routes,

  • Regular control and disinfection of the animal markets,

  • Warning the farmers about the importance of the situation,

  • Sending regular development reports to MARA,

  • Application of the legal measures and penalties if necessary.

3. At the international level:

  • A letter was sent to the Iranian Veterinary Organisation by GDPC of MARA asking information upon the subject of the localisation of the epidemic, measures taken for that subject and a proposal for technical collaboration.

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