Nature of the disease
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease is characterised by the formation of vesicles (fluid-filled blisters) and erosions in the mouth, nose, teats and feet. Although not very lethal in adult animals, it causes serious production losses and is a major constraint in international trade.
OIE List A disease
Cloven-hoofed animals (ungulates) are susceptible to FMD. Of the domestic species, cattle, buffaloes, pigs, sheep, goats and deer are susceptible. Horses are not affected.
Where it occurs
The FMD situation has improved markedly in recent years particularly in Europe and some countries in south east Asia and South America. However, the disease remains endemic and at a high prevalence in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and South America. Europe, North and Central America, Pacific nations and the Caribbean are free of the disease.