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ARCHIVE LATEST ASF China situation update

08 February 2019, 10:00 hours; Rome

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal animal disease affecting pigs and wild boars with up to 100% mortality.
Affected provinces:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan and Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong and Gansu Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Regions.
Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Tuv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.

Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (August 2018 to date)

ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date, information source: Veterinary Bureau, MARA, China)
Click to enlarge - Information source: Veterinary Bureau, MARA, China.

 

 Situation update

China

Since the China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed its first African swine fever (ASF) outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, 105 ASF outbreaks detected in 25 Provinces/Autonomous Region/Municipalities. More than 950,000 pigs have been culled in an effort to halt further spread.

 

Hunan Province: ASF outbreak occurred on one farm with 4,600 pigs in Yongzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone, Yongzhou City [reference].

 

Mongolia

Since the Mongolia Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry reported the first ASF outbreak on 15 January 2019, ten ASF outbreaks were reported in six provinces (aimags); the virus was also detected in meat/meat product in Ulaanbaatar City. No new ASF outbreaks reported during this period.

 

Actions taken by China

 

The Government set a 3 km epidemic zone and a 10 km buffer zone around the epidemic zone. A strict movement control of live pigs was introduced, and live pig markets in infected provinces and adjacent provinces are closed [reference]. The Government strengthened transport of pork meat rather than of live pigs [reference]. Studies showed that 62% of the first 21 ASF events in China were related to swill feeding. Directives on banning swill feeding to pigs and record keeping of livestock transportation vehicles was updated [reference]. Epidemiological studies of 68 outbreaks revealed 3 major causes spread ASF virus: 46% by vehicles and workers without disinfection, 34% by swill feeding, and 19% by transport of live pigs and their products across regions [reference]. As ASF was detected in a wild boar, MARA and Ministry of Natural Resources released a joint notice on “Strengthening the Joint Prevention and Control Work on ASF in domestic pigs and wild boars” [reference].

 

On 29 January 2019, MARA released the 2019 edition of the ‘ASF Epidemic Emergency Implementation Plan’ [reference]. The latest version has 1) clarified diagnosis and reporting procedures, 2) increased the outbreak classification from 3 levels to 4 levels (I: highly important, II: significant, III: relatively larger, and IV: general), and specified corresponding response measures according to different levels, and strictly restricted the transportation of pig products from high-risk areas to low-risk areas, 3) optimized emergency response measures, conditions to lift movement control and to restart production, and 4) increased technical requirements for the sampling, diagnosis, disinfection and destruction. In terms of emergency measures, there are five adjustments: 1) disposal measures during transport, 2) conditions to cull (instead of culling all pigs in Epidemic Zone, test all farms in the zone using a virological test and cull only farms tested positive), 3) optimizing conditions to lift movement restriction (use of sentinel pigs can shorten the period from 42 days to 30 days), 4) conditions to restart slaughterhouse (can restart after 48 hours if all conditions are met), and 5) conditions to restart production at farm (use of sentinel pigs can shorten the period from 6 months to 45 days) [reference].

 

Dried pork produced in Jiangsu Province and another with unknown origin confiscated at Songshan Airport, Taiwan Province tested positive for ASF virus. The gene sequence was 100% matching with the ASF virus in other parts of China [reference].

 

Following assessment, Epidemic Zones were lifted in Longli County, Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province on 3 February [reference], Huangpu District, Guangzhou City and Boluo County, Huizhou City, Guangdong Province on 3 and 6 February respectively [reference1, reference2], and Yanping District, Nanping City, Fujian Province on 7 February [reference] since there was no new cases reported in the affected areas after 6 weeks of continuous monitoring and investigation. As of 8 February 2019, the quarantine in 97 Epidemic Zones has been lifted.

Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China

Number of pigs transported across provincial boundary (blue) and wholesale pig and pork price/kg in China
Click to enlarge- Information source: Veterinary Bureau, MARA, China.

 

Table 1. List of affected cities in China since 3 August 2018

Province

Cities with affected areas

Last reported onset*

Heilongjiang

Jiamusi City

03/09/2018

Harbin City 14/11/2018
Heihe City 28/11/2018
Jixi City 16/12/2018
Suihua City 01/01/2019

Inner Mongolia

XilinGol League

15/09/2018

Xing’an League

17/09/2018

Hohhot City

22/09/2018

Baotou City

21/11/2018

Jilin

Siping City 17/09/2018
Songyuan City 28/09/2018
Yanbian Korean
Autonomous Prefecture
02/11/2018
Baishan City 16/11/2018

Liaoning

Shenyang City 07/09/2018
Yingkou City 07/10/2018
Anshan City 12/10/2018
Dalian City 09/10/2018
Jinzhou City 13/10/2018
Panjin City 15/10/2018
Tieling City 14/10/2018

Beijing

  04/12/2018

Tianjin

  26/11/2018

Shanxi

Datong City 16/10/2018
Taiyuan City 30/10/2018
Linyi City 06/12/2018
Jincheng City 27/12/2018

Shanghai

  15/11/2018

Jiangsu

Lianyungang City 15/08/2018
Wuxi City 29/08/2018
Suqian City 06/01/2019

Zhejiang

Wenzhou City 17/08/2018
Taizhou City 18/10/2018

Anhui

Wuhu City 31/08/2018
Xuancheng City 31/08/2018
Chuzhou City 02/09/2018
Tongling City 07/09/2018
Chizhou City 07/11/2018

Fujian

Putian City 06/11/2018
Sanming City 18/12/2018
Nanping City 22/12/2018

Jiangxi

Shangrao City 16/11/2018
Jiujiang City 29/11/2018

Henan

Zhengzhou City 14/08/2018
Xinxiang City 10/09/2018

Hubei

Huanggang City 12/11/2018
Huangshi City 22/11/2018

Hunan

Yiyang City 28/09/2018
Changde City 22/10/2018
Huaihua City 14/11/2018
Xiangxi Tujia and Miao
Autonomous Prefecture
31/10/2018
Loudi City 22/10/2018
Yongzhou City 08/02/2019

Guangdong

Zhuhai City 17/12/2018
Guangzhou City 21/12/2018
Huizhou City 23/12/2018

Chongqing

  13/12/2018

Sichuan

Yibin City 13/11/2018
Chengdu City 13/11/2018
Luzhou City 27/11/2018
Bazhong City 06/12/2018
Mianyang City 12/12/2018

Guizhou

Bijie City 24/10/2018
Guiyang City 06/12/2018
Qiannan Buyei and Miao
Autonomous Prefecture
18/12/2018

Yunnan

Zhaotong City 09/11/2018
Pu'er City 27/10/2018
Kunming City 15/11/2018

Shaanxi

Xi'an City 27/11/2018
Yulin City 03/12/2018

Ningxia

Yinchuan City 11/01/2019

Gansu

Qingyang City 13/01/2019
Lanzhou City 18/01/2019

Qinghai

Xining City 10/12/2018

* For cases with unknown onset date, detection date or reporting date was used.

 

 FAO’s recommendations

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Preparedness (e.g. contingency planning, standard operating procedures— SOPs, secured financial support) for improved early warning, detection and notification, early reaction, and coordination needs to be in place and reviewed periodically in relation to changing disease situation.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Good communication and coordination with swine producing commercial sector and swine famers are essential to strengthen cooperation in ASF prevention, detection, and control. Awareness and training of all stakeholders, from veterinarians to farmers, intermediaries and other value chain actors is needed.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Farm registries, animal identification and censuses are essential to enable animal health interventions.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.
  • Outbreak control strategies must be in place. The strategies need to be developed in consultation with the private sector (pig producers and allied industries, such as transport, feed operators) for improved disease management options and compliance.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  • Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management.

 FAO’s actions

  • FAO and MARA jointly organized the Multilateral Cross-Border Meeting in Greater Mekong Subregion to Strengthen Collaboration of Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Beijing China, 22-24 November 2018 which included “African Swine Fever Emergency Preparedness training” for Lao PDR, Myanmar, Viet Nam and China [reference].
  • On 16 November, FAO-China, Chief/AGAH and CVO met with MARA Vice Minister and senior staff of Veterinary Bureau and China Animal Disease Control Center. A call for solidarity to address the expanding global threat of ASF to the G20 was suggested by Chinese officials [reference]. .
  • On 23 October, FAO Chief Veterinary Officer sent a message to CVOs of China and Southeast Asian Countries encouraging further preparedness and vigilance [reference].
  • FAO and MARA jointly held a Technical Consultation on ‘Application of Technology to Strengthen ASF Control through Rapid Detection and Response’ on 11-12 October 2018 in Beijing, China, with participants from Veterinary Bureau/MARA, China Animal Disease Control Center (CADC), China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center (CAHEC) [reference].
  • FAO organized an “Emergency Regional Consultation on African Swine Fever on Risk Reduction and Preparedness” in Bangkok, September 2018 [reference].
  • FAO mission to Mongolia and China (April 2018) to explore opportunities in wild boar surveillance.
  • FAO publication on ASF spread in Asia (March 2018) and urged regional collaboration including  preparedness measures [reference].

Useful links

  • African swine fever (ASF) detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017) [English, Русский, 中文]
  • Regional strategy for the control of ASF in Africa (FAO, AU-IBAR and ILRI, 2017) [Link]
  • Manual on the preparation of African swine fever contingency plans (2001) [Link]
  • Rapid risk assessment of ASF introduction into China (Mar 2018) [Link]
  • Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials [Link]
  • Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector (2010) [Link
  • ASF awareness video [Link]
  • OIE disease card [Link], OIE Manual (2012) [Link], OIE Code [Link], OIE weekly ASF situation reports [Link]
  • Global ASF Research Alliance [Link