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ARCHIVE LATEST ASF China situation update

07 April 2019, 09:00 hours; Rome

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal animal disease affecting pigs and wild boars with up to 100% mortality.
Affected provinces:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan and Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, and Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Regions.
Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Tuv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.

Viet Nam: Hung Yen, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Ha Nam, Hai Duong, Dien Bien, Hoa Binh, Thai Nguyen, Quang Ninh, Ninh Binh, Nam Dinh, Bac Kan, Lang Son, Nghe An, Son La, Bac Ninh, Thua Thien-Hue, Lai Chau, Bac Giang, Quang Tri, Vinh Phuc Provinces, Hai Phong and Ha Noi Cities.
Cambodia: Ratanakiri Province.

Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (August 2018 to date)

ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date
Click to enlarge - Information source: Mongolia:WAHIS, China: MARA, Viet Nam: MARD & media information, Cambodia: MAFF.

 

 Situation update

China

Since the China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed its first African swine fever (ASF) outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, 118 ASF outbreaks detected in 28 Provinces/Autonomous Region / Municipalities. Around 1,000,000 pigs have been culled in an effort to halt further spread.

 

Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: The first ASF outbreak occurred on one farming cooperative in Midong District, Urumqi City; 15 of 200 pigs became sick and died from the disease [reference].

 

Yunnan Province: ASF outbreak occurred in a village in Shangri-La City, Diqing Prefecture, Yunnan Province; 196 of 301 pigs became sick of which 105 died [reference].

 

Hubei Province: ASF outbreak occurred on two farms in Lichuan City. 8 of 142 pigs became sick on one farm, of which 5 died; and on another farm, all 83 pigs became and 73 died [reference].

 

Mongolia

Since its first report on the 15 January 2019, 11 outbreaks in 6 provinces and in Ulaanbaatar have been reported, involving 105 farms/households. More than 3,115 pigs, more than 10 percent of the total pig population in Mongolia, have died/been destroyed due to the ASF outbreaks.

 

Viet Nam

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) confirmed its ASF outbreaks on 19 February 2019, 23 provinces/cities reported outbreaks, and more than 89,600 pigs have been culled.

 

Cambodia

The Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries confirmed the first ASF outbreaks in a backyard farm in Saom Thum Commune, Ou Ya Dav District, Ratanakiri province. 400 of 500 pigs died [reference1, reference2].

 

Actions taken by China

 

The government set a 3 km epidemic zone and a 10 km buffer zone around the epidemic zone. A strict movement control of live pigs was introduced, and live pig markets in infected provinces and adjacent provinces were closed [reference]. Studies showed that 62% of the first 21 ASF events in China were related to swill feeding. Directives on banning swill feeding to pigs and record keeping of livestock transportation vehicles was updated [reference]. Epidemiological studies of 68 outbreaks revealed 3 major causes spread ASF virus: 46% by vehicles and workers without disinfection, 34% by swill feeding, and 19% by transport of live pigs and their products across regions [reference]. As ASF was detected in a wild boar, MARA and Ministry of Natural Resources released a joint notice on “Strengthening the Joint Prevention and Control Work on ASF in domestic pigs and wild boars” [reference]. MARA released the 2019 edition of the ‘ASF Epidemic Emergency Implementation Plan’ [reference]. In March 2019, MARA updated regulations on pig slaughterhouses: before May 2019, provinces to conduct a through inspection of pig slaughtering enterprises without pollutant discharge permit, or does not meet the animal epidemic prevention requirements, shall immediately stop production and rectify before July 2019 to continue slaughter. It task pig slaughter enterprises to conduct self-inspection by using PCR, which to be implemented from April–July 2019. If ASF is detected, the slaughtering enterprise should stop production for 48 hours, then apply for evaluation to resume production. If ASF virus nucleic acid is detected in products that are sent out from a slaughterhouse due to a mal-conduct, the slaughter enterprises needs to recall the same batch, and the activities be suspended for at least 15 days [reference].

Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China

Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China
Click to enlarge - For cases with unknown onset date, detection date, confirmation date or reporting date was used.

 

On 28 March, a dried pork meat produced in Jiangsu Province was found in an illegal shipment, and a pork ham sausage produced in Heilongjiang Province which was in the possession of a passenger from Hong Kong SAR were tested positive for ASF virus by the Hsinchu Airport Branch, Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine Bureau. The genomic sequence analysis of this virus showed 100% identity with ASF virus elsewhere in China [reference].

 

Following assessment, Epidemic Zone was lifted on 23 March in Economic and Technological Development Zone, Yongzhou City, Hunan Province [reference], and on 5 April in Laiwu District, Jinan City, Shandong Province [reference] and Lishui City, Nujiang Prefecture, Yunnan Province [reference], since there were no new cases reported in the affected areas for 6 weeks. As of 5 April 2019, the quarantine in 107 Epidemic Zones have been lifted.

 

 

Actions taken by Viet Nam

 

Viet Nam has implemented movement control of pigs and pig products from affected communes; ASF positive farms have been depopulated according to the Action Plan for Emergency Response to ASF [reference]. MARD has proposed additional guidelines for ASF control in February for provincial authorities implementation [reference].On 20 March 2019, MARD requested provincial/city people’s committee to allow healthy pigs in infected area to be slaughtered for consumption within: infected commune; infected district if >1 communes infected; or provinces if >1 districts infected. No movement from infected provinces is allowed [reference]. The Prime Minister Office announced on 7 March 2019 the increase of compensation for piglets and fattening pigs to 80%, and x 1.5 – 2.0 of normal compensation rate for sow/boar [reference].

 

Table 1. List of affected Cities in China since 03 August 2018

Province

Cities with affected areas

Last reported onset*

Heilongjiang

Suihua City 01/01/2019

Inner Mongolia

Hulun Buir 24/02/2019

Jilin

Baishan City 13/11/2018

Liaoning

Panjin City 15/10/2018

Beijing

  04/12/2018

Tianjin

  26/11/2018

Hebei

Baoding City 24/02/2019

Shanxi

Jincheng City 27/12/2018

Shanghai

  15/11/2018

Jiangsu

Suqian City 06/01/2019

Zhejiang

Taizhou City 18/10/2018

Anhui

Chizhou City 07/11/2018

Fujian

Nanping City 22/12/2018

Jiangxi

Jiujiang City 29/11/2018

Shandong

Jinan City 20/02/2019

Henan

Xinxiang City 10/09/2018

Hubei

Lichuan City 21/03/2019

Hunan

Yongzhou City 08/02/2019

Guangdong

Huizhou City 23/12/2018

Guangxi

Guigang City 07/03/2019

Chongqing

  21/03/2019

Sichuan

Guang’an City 10/03/2019

Guizhou

Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture 18/12/2018

Yunnan

Shangri-La City 04/04/2019

Shaanxi

Yulin City 28/02/2019

Ningxia

Yinchuan City 11/01/2019

Gansu

Lanzhou City 18/01/2019

Qinghai

Xining City 10/12/2018

Xinjiang

Urumqi City 03/04/2019

* For cases with unknown onset date, detection date or reporting date was used.

 

Table 2. List of affected Cities in Viet Nam since 19 February 2019 (as of 29 March 2019)

Province

Number of communes affected

Last reported onset*

Ha Noi

30 29/03/2019

Hai Phong

72 28/03/2019

Vinh Phuc

1 29/03/2019

Bac Ninh

44 29/03/2019

Hai Duong

47 29/03/2019

Hung Yen

68 29/03/2019

Ha Nam

7 28/03/2019

Nam Dinh

9 28/03/2019

Thai Binh

167 29/03/2019

Ninh Binh

1 29/03/2019

Bac Kan

1 28/03/2019

Lang Son

1 29/03/2019

Thai Nguyen

11 28/03/2019

Bac Giang

1 29/03/2019

Quang Ninh

17 28/03/2019

Lai Chau

17 08/03/2019

Dien Bien

17 11/03/2019

Son La

14 11/03/2019

Hoa Binh

2 09/03/2019

Thank Hoa

23 13/03/2019

Nghe An

4 23/03/2019

Quang Tri

1 25/03/2019

Thua Thien-Hue

1 25/03/2019

* For cases with unknown onset date, detection date or reporting date was used. Source: DAH

 

 FAO’s recommendations

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Preparedness (e.g. contingency planning, standard operating procedures— SOPs, secured financial support) for improved early warning, detection and notification, early reaction, and coordination needs to be in place and reviewed periodically in relation to changing disease situation.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Good communication and coordination with swine producing commercial sector and swine famers are essential to strengthen cooperation in ASF prevention, detection, and control. Awareness and training of all stakeholders, from veterinarians to farmers, intermediaries and other value chain actors is needed.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Farm registries, animal identification and censuses are essential to enable animal health interventions.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.
  • Outbreak control strategies must be in place. The strategies need to be developed in consultation with the private sector (pig producers and allied industries, such as transport, feed operators) for improved disease management options and compliance.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  • Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management.

 FAO’s actions

  • Forthcoming participation at International Symposium on ASF and Standing Group of Exerts (SGE)–ASF meeting (Beijing, April 2019).
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Viet Nam from 11 to 16 March to assess ASF situation and response strategy.
  • FAO Myanmar is advising Veterinary Service on appropriate active surveillance and on laboratory diagnosis. FAO completed an EMC-AH mission to Myanmar to assess ASF preparedness, including laboratory capacity by expert from an OIE/FAO reference laboratory (March 2019).
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH Emergency Response Mission to Mongolia to assess ASF situation (February 2019).
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to assess ASF preparedness [reference].
  • FAO and MARA jointly organized the Multilateral Cross-Border Meeting in Greater Mekong Subregion to Strengthen Collaboration of Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Beijing, China in November 2018 which included “African Swine Fever Emergency Preparedness training” for Lao PDR, Myanmar, Viet Nam and China [reference].
  • On 16 November, FAO-China, Chief/AGAH and CVO met with MARA Vice Minister and senior staff of Veterinary Bureau and China Animal Disease Control Center. A call for solidarity to address the expanding global threat of ASF to the G20 was suggested by Chinese officials [reference].
  • In October 2018 and again in February 2019, FAO Chief Veterinary Officer sent a message to CVOs in the region and throughout the world encouraging preparedness and vigilance [reference].
  • FAO and MARA jointly held a Technical Consultation on ‘Application of Technology to Strengthen ASF Control through Rapid Detection and Response’ in October 2018 in Beijing, China, with participants from Veterinary Bureau/MARA, China Animal Disease Control Center (CADC), China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center (CAHEC) [reference].
  • FAO organized an “Emergency Regional Consultation on African Swine Fever on Risk Reduction and Preparedness” in Bangkok, September 2018 [reference].
  • FAO mission to Mongolia and China (April 2018) to explore opportunities in wild boar surveillance.
  • FAO publication on ASF spread in Asia (March 2018) and urged regional collaboration including preparedness measures [reference].

Useful links

  • African swine fever (ASF) detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017) [English, Русский, 中文]
  • Regional strategy for the control of ASF in Africa (FAO, AU-IBAR and ILRI, 2017) [Link]
  • Manual on the preparation of African swine fever contingency plans (2001) [Link]
  • Rapid risk assessment of ASF introduction into China (Mar 2018) [Link]
  • Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials [Link]
  • Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector (2010) [Link
  • ASF awareness video [Link]
  • OIE disease card [Link], OIE Manual (2012) [Link], OIE Code [Link], OIE weekly ASF situation reports [Link]
  • Global ASF Research Alliance [Link