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ARCHIVE LATEST ASF situation in Asia update

24 October 2019, 09:00 hours; Rome

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal animal disease affecting pigs and wild boars with up to 100% case fatality rate.

 

Affected provinces:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan and Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong and Hainan Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Zhuang, Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Regions and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR).

Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Töv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.

Viet Nam: Hung Yen, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Ha Nam, Hai Duong, Dien Bien, Hoa Binh, Thai Nguyen, Quang Ninh, Ninh Binh, Nam Dinh, Bac Kan, Lang Son, Nghe An, Son La, Bac Ninh, Thua Thien-Hue, Bac Giang, Lai Chau, Quang Tri, Vinh Phuc, Cao Bang, Khanh Hoa, Hau Giang, Vinh Long, Dong Nai, Phu Thọ, Yen Bai, Binh Phuoc, Lao Cai, An Giang, Ha Tinh, Quang Nam, Dak Nong, Kien Giang, Soc Trang, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang, Binh Duong, Ca Mau, Quang Ngai, Dak Lak, Tien Giang, Kon Tum, Bac Lieu, Bình Định, Tra Vinh, Binh Thuan, Quang Binh, Long An, Phu Yen, Ba Ria - Vung Tau, Lam Dong, Ben Tre Provinces, Tay Ninh, Ninh Thuan Provinces, Hai Phong, Ha Noi, Can Tho, Da Nang and Ho Chi Minh Cities.

Cambodia: Ratanakiri, Tboung Khmum, Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kandal Provinces.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Chagang-Do.

Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Salavan, Savannakhét, Xékong, Xaisomboun, Xiangkhouang, Houaphan, Phôngsali, Bolikhamxai, Louangphabang, Khammouan, Oudômxai, Vientiane, Luang Namtha, Attapeu, Bokèo, Champasak Provinces, and Vientiane Capital.

Myanmar: Shan State.

The Philippines: Rizal, Bulacan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Cavite Provinces and Quezon City.

Republic of Korea: Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do* and Incheon City. (* wild boar only)

Timor-Leste: Dili City.

Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (August 2018 to date)

ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date
Click to enlarge - Source: China: MARA, Viet Nam: WAHIS & media information, Other: WAHIS.

 

 Situation update

Mongolia

Since its first report on 15 January 2019, 11 outbreaks in 6 provinces and in Ulaanbaatar have been reported, involving 105 farms/households. More than 3,115 pigs, more than 10 percent of the total pig population in Mongolia, have died/been destroyed due to the ASF outbreaks.

 

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

The Ministry of Agriculture confirmed the occurrence of the first ASF outbreak in Chagang-do on 23 May 2019 [reference].

 

Republic of Korea

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 17 September 2019, ASF was detected in a total of 14 places in Gyeonggi-do (9), Incheon City (5) in domestic pigs. As of 24 October, ASF virus was confirmed in 14 wild boars from Gangwon-do (5) and Gyeonggi-do (9), inside or near the Civilian Control Zone (CCZ, 5-10km outside of DMZ) [reference]. ASF (genotype II) was detected at Incheon Port, in pork products (sausage), carried by a Chinese traveller from Dandong City, Liaoning Province, China on 16 October [reference].

 

China

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed its first ASF outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, 160 ASF outbreaks detected in 32 Provinces / Autonomous Regions / Municipalities / Special Administrative Region. About 1,192,000 pigs have been culled [reference].

 

The Philippines

Since the Department of Agriculture confirmed the first ASF outbreak started on 25 July 2019, 22 areas in 7 provinces/city on Luzon Island have been affected, approximately 62,000 pigs have been culled [reference].

 

Viet Nam

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) confirmed its first ASF outbreak on 19 February 2019, all 63 provinces/cities reported outbreaks, more than 5,600,000 pigs have been culled.

 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Salavan Province on 20 June 2019, a total of 165 ASF outbreaks were reported, in 17 out of its 18 Provinces/city; Nearly 39,000 pigs have died or been destroyed due to the ASF.

 

Cambodia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Ratanakiri Province on 2 April 2019, ASF outbreaks were detected in 5 Provinces.

 

Myanmar

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation confirmed the first ASF outbreak in on 1 August 2019, a total of 4 ASF outbreaks were reported in Shan State.

 

Timor-Leste

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries announced the confirmation of ASF outbreak on 27 September 2019 as hundreds of pigs have died because of the disease in the country; samples sent to Australia confirmed that these animals suffered from African swine fever [reference1]. The disease started on 9 September, a total of 100 outbreaks in smallholder pig farms has been recorded in the Capital City, Dili [reference2].

 

Actions taken by China

 

MARA released the 2019 edition of the ‘ASF Epidemic Emergency Implementation Plan’ [reference1]. MARA updated regulations on pig slaughterhouses: It task pig slaughter enterprises to conduct self-inspection by using PCR. If ASF is detected, the slaughtering enterprise should stop production for 48 hours, then apply for evaluation to resume production [reference2]. MARA released a comprehensive “Technical guideline for restocking of the African swine fever affected pig farms” on 10 September 2019 [reference3].

Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China

Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China
Click to enlarge - * Including detection in live pigs in intercepted vehicles. For cases with unknown onset date, detection date, confirmation date or reporting date was used.

Source: Veterinary Bureau, MARA, China.

 

Following assessment, Epidemic Zone in Xingqing District, Yinchuan City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region was lifted on 24 October [reference] as there were no new cases reported in the affected areas for 6 weeks.

 

Actions taken by the Republic of Korea

 

To prevent ASF spread to southern parts of the country, MAFRA set a buffer zone (outside the 10km radius of affected farms) that is separating the affected zone from southern free zone; controlling the traffic of feed vehicles between zones [reference1]. The Government has been purchasing pigs ready for market from farms within 10 km from infected farms, and destroy other pigs on the farm as a part of precaution measures with compensation. Regarding wild boars, to prevent the spread through wild boar, three areas have been designated and zone specific measures including hunting and trapping are conducted [reference2]. A total of 3,646 wild boars were captured for the past 1 week alone; total 56,245 head captured since the beginning of 2019 [reference3, reference4].

 

Actions taken by Viet Nam

 

Viet Nam has implemented movement control of pigs and pig products from affected communes. The Central Committee of the Communist Party issued the Directive (No.34-CT/TW, 20 May) to strengthen their leadership and operational instructions for effective implementation of ASF response, control and prevention. The National Steering Committee for ASF prevention and control requested National Steering Committee against smuggling and People's Committees of provinces to strengthening control of cross border transport of pigs and pig products (No.10/BCDDTLCP, 16 October). The pig population as of September 2019 decreased by 19% compared to 2018; the output of live-weight slaughtered pork in 9 months decreased 9% (17% decreased in the third quarter). The Red River Delta region suffered the biggest losses with the pig population decreased by 38.3% compared to 2018 [reference].

Figure 2. Newly affected communes/week in Viet Nam including estimated number of communes affected anytime in the past

Newly affected communes/week in Viet Nam including estimated number of communes affected anytime in the past
(Calculated figure)

 

Actions taken by Cambodia

 

Cambodia implemented movement control of live pigs, pork and pork products, stamping out, disposal and disinfection in affected villages. Further investigations have been carried out in neighbouring areas. The authorities are strengthening farm biosecurity and testing animals at slaughterhouses [reference].

 

Actions taken by Lao People’s Democratic Republic

 

The Ministry designates Red Area around an outbreak, to control the movement of pig and pork products, and prohibits pork consumption; and yellow Area (3 km radius from the red areas) as designated surveillance zones.

 

Actions taben by the Philippines

 

The Philippines has been implementing its 1-7-10 protocol to manage, contain and control the spread of the disease i.e. all pigs within 1-kilometer radius of infected farms will be culled; limit animal movement and swine farms will be under strict surveillance and testing within a 7-kilometer radius; swine farms within a 10-kilometer radius will be required to submit a mandatory report on the disease [reference1]. The President and the Cabinet approved additional measures to contain and prevent the spread of ASF in Luzon Island including: lock down of “ASF-infected zones” in Bulacan and Pampanga Provinces to ensure movement control of pigs and pork products; from which people sell/buy/transport live pigs, slaughter ASF-infected pigs, and sell ASF contaminated pork products will be arrested/filed [reference2]. Bayambang Municipality, Pangasinan Province has declared a state of calamity in areas affected by ASF in its seven barangays, including the four barangays within the one-kilometre radius from Barangay Apalen, where the ASF was first detected [reference3].

 

ASF in Far East wild boars

 

In the Far East Asia, 22 ASF virus positive wild boars have been reported in:  Jilin Province (1), China (November 2018); Primorsky Kray (5), Yevreyskaya Avtonomnaya Oblast (1), Russian Federation (August–October 2019); and Gyeonggi-do (9) and Gangwon-do (5),  Republic of Korea (October 2018) as shown in Map 2.

Map 2. ASF in wild boar

ASF in wild boar
Source: China: MARA, Viet Nam: WAHIS & media information, Other: WAHIS.

 

 FAO’s recommendations

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Preparedness (e.g. contingency planning, standard operating procedures— SOPs, secured financial support) for improved early warning, detection and notification, early reaction, and coordination needs to be in place and reviewed periodically in relation to changing disease situation.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Good communication and coordination with swine producing commercial sector and swine famers are essential to strengthen cooperation in ASF prevention, detection, and control. Awareness and training of all stakeholders, from veterinarians to farmers, intermediaries and other value chain actors is needed.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Farm registries, animal identification and censuses are essential to enable animal health interventions.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.
  • Outbreak control strategies must be in place. The strategies need to be developed in consultation with the private sector (pig producers and allied industries, such as transport, feed operators) for improved disease management options and compliance.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  • Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management.

 

 FAO’s actions

  • ECTAD Viet Nam uploaded a video clip to YouTube on technical advice [reference].
  • Inception Workshop for the Regional Technical Cooperation Programme on African Swine Fever Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia was held in Bangkok (August 2019) [reference].
  • ECTAD/FAO Regional office for Asia and the Pacific attended the 2nd standing group of experts on African swine fever (SGE-ASF) meeting for Asia held in Tokyo, Japan (July 2019) [reference].
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Lao PDR to assess the ASF situation and preparedness and response strategy (June 2019).
  • FAO and World Bank delivered a joint presentation at the G7 CVO meeting (May 2019).
  • OIE and FAO delivered a joint presentation on ASF at the 87th OIE General Session, OIE, Paris (May 2019).
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Cambodia from 27 May to assess the ASF situation and response strategy (May 2019).
  • In Cambodia, the private sector organized an awareness-training program entitled "Breeding pigs under ASF threat", at which FAO ECTAD Cambodia presented the regional ASF situation (May 2019).
  • FAO project on ASF Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia” started (April 2019).
  • Beijing International Symposium on ASF was jointly organized by MARA, FAO and OIE in Beijing (APRIL 2019).
  • The GF-TADS Standing Group of Experts (SGE) on ASF for Asia was held in Beijing, hosted by MARA (April 2019).
  • FAO in collaboration with the General Directorate of Animal Health and Production (GDAHP), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cambodia, organized a National Consultative Workshop on the Development of ASF Preparedness and Response Plan (ASF-CPRP) in Cambodia (April 2019).
  • FAO organized a workshop on ASF Preparedness & Response Plan and portable PCR in Cambodia (April 2019)....[and more]

Useful links

  • African swine fever (ASF) detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017) [English, Русский, 中文]
  • African Swine Fever in wild boar - Ecology and biosecurity [Link]
  • FAO FOOD OUTLOOK (ASF special report from p. 71) [Link]
  • Presentations of the 1st Standing Group of Experts on African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia are available here
  • Presentations of the International Symposium on Prevention and Control of ASF also available Part 1: Strategy, Part 2: Eradication, Part 3: Control measures, Part 4: Diagnosis and vaccines.
  • Regional strategy for the control of ASF in Africa (FAO, AU-IBAR and ILRI, 2017) [Link]
  • Manual on the preparation of African swine fever contingency plans (2001) [Link]
  • Rapid risk assessment of ASF introduction into China (Mar 2018) [Link]
  • Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials [Link]
  • Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector (2010) [Link
  • ASF awareness video [Link]
  • OIE disease card [Link], OIE Manual (2012) [Link], OIE Code [Link], OIE weekly ASF situation reports [Link]
  • Global ASF Research Alliance [Link