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ARCHIVEASF situation in Asia update

05 March 2020, 08:00 hours; Rome

The next update will be issued in 19 March 2020

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal animal disease affecting pigs and wild boars with up to 100% case fatality rate.

 

Affected provinces:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan and Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong and Hainan Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Zhuang, Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Regions and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR).

Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Töv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.

Viet Nam: All provinces and municipalities.

Cambodia: Ratanakiri, Tboung Khmum, Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kandal Provinces.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Chagang-Do.

Lao People’s Democratic Republic: All provinces and municipality.

Myanmar: Shan and Kachin States.

The Philippines: Rizal, Bulacan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Cavite, Benguet, Kalinga, Aurora, Bataan, Quezon, Isabela, Davao Occidental, Davao del Sur, Camarines Sur Provinces and Metro Manila (Caloocan, Malabon and Quezon Cities).

Republic of Korea: Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do* and Incheon City (* wild boar only)

Timor-Leste: Dili City, Baucau, Covalima, Ermera, Lautein, Liquiça, Maliana, Manatuto, Manufahi, and Viqueque districts.

Indonesia: North Sumatra and East Nusa Tenggara Provinces.

Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (August 2018 to date)

ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date
Click to enlarge - Source: China: MARA, Viet Nam: WAHIS & media information, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, Timor-Leste: WAHIS and government websites, Other: WAHIS.

 

 Situation update

Mongolia

Since its first report on 15 January 2019, 11 outbreaks in 6 provinces and in Ulaanbaatar have been reported, involving 105 farms/households. More than 3,115 pigs, more than 10 percent of the total pig population in Mongolia, have died/been destroyed due to the ASF outbreaks.

 

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

The Ministry of Agriculture confirmed the occurrence of the first ASF outbreak in Chagang-do on 23 May 2019 [reference].

 

Republic of Korea

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 17 September 2019, ASF was detected in domestic pigs in 14 farms (Gyeonggi-do (9), Incheon City (5)); and in 306 wild pigs from Gyeonggi-do (164) and Gangwon-do (142) [reference].

 

China

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed its first ASF outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, 165 outbreaks detected in 32 Provinces / Autonomous Regions / Municipalities / Special Administrative Region, about 1,193,000 pigs have been culled [reference1]. On 3 March 2020, MARA reported that ASF virus was detected in seven dead wild boars in Yangri town and Songbai town in Shennongjia Forestry District in Hubei Province; epidemiological investigations have been conducted [reference2].

 

The Philippines

Since the Department of Agriculture (DA) confirmed the first ASF outbreak started on July 2019, ASF have been confirmed on Luzon and Mindanao Islands [reference1]. More than 67,000 pigs were culled on Luzon Island to control the spread of ASF [reference2]. On newly affected southern Mindanao Island, ASF outbreaks were reported in two provinces namely Davao Occidental and Davao del Sur. On Luzon Island, by the end of February 2020, ASF outbreaks were reported in the northern area (Benguet, Isabela, and Kalinga Provinces) and southern area (Camarines Sur Province), in addition to the central area such as Bulacan and Pangasinan Provinces. In the north, in Isabela Province, towns of Aurora, Cordon, Gamu, Jones, Quezon, Roxas and San Manuel were also affected [reference3]. In the south, ASF outbreaks were reported in three towns in Camarines Sur Province (Bombon, Calabanga and Magarao), a total of 1,245 pigs were culled [reference4, reference5]. In the central area, as of 26 February, ASF was reported in the municipalities of Lingayen, Calasiao, Sta. Barbara and Asingan as well as Urdaneta City in Pangasinan Province, more than 5 500 pigs have been culled [reference6].

 

Viet Nam

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) confirmed its first ASF outbreak on 19 February 2019, all 63 provinces/cities reported outbreaks, about 6,000,000 pigs have been culled. Currently, 35 provinces have had no outbreaks for more than 30 days (Map2).

Map 2. Provinces where no new ASF outbreaks for more than 30 days in Viet Nam

ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date

 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Salavan Province on 20 June 2019, more than 170 ASF outbreaks were reported, in all 18 Provinces / city; 40,130 pigs have died or been destroyed due to the ASF.

 

Cambodia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Ratanakiri Province on 2 April 2019, ASF outbreaks were detected in 5 Provinces.

 

Myanmar

 Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 1 August 2019, a total of 5 ASF outbreaks were reported in Shan State. In addition, the latest outbreak occurred in Momauk Town, Kachin State on 22 February 2020 [reference].

 

Indonesia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture confirmed an ASF outbreak in Indonesia, as of 24 February, the total number of ASF infected areas in North Sumatra Province reached 21 districts / cities, with total pig deaths of 47,330. In Bali Province, 1,735 pigs died due to unknown causes in 7 districts / cities [reference1]. As of 27 February,2,825 pig deaths were also reported in five districts/cities (Belu District, Malacca, North Central Timor (TTU), South Central Timor (TTS), Kupang District and Kupang City) on Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) Province. Pig samples from Belu District tested positive for ASF at the Medan Disease Investigation Centre (DIC) animal health laboratory, which is the reference laboratory for swine diseases in Indonesia [reference2, reference3].

 

Timor-Leste

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries announced the confirmation of ASF outbreak on 27 September 2019. The disease started on 9 September, a total of 100 outbreaks in smallholder pig farms has been recorded in the Capital City, Dili [reference1, reference2]. Additional ASF outbreaks reported in districts of Baucau, Covalima, Ermera, Lautein, Liquiça, Maliana, Mantutu, Manufahi, and Viqueque. A total of 1,600 pig have died as ASF spread to Timor-Leste [reference3, reference4, reference5].

 

Actions taken by China

 

MARA task pig slaughter enterprises to conduct self-inspection by using PCR [reference1]. MARA released “Technical guideline for restocking of the African swine fever affected pig farms” on 10 September 2019 [reference2] and the “three-year action plan to accelerate the recovery and development of pig production” in December 2019, aiming to stabilise pork market and to recover production capacity. The action plan differentiate areas into a) Production area, b) Consumption area, c) Megacities, and d) balanced area, and promote implementation of the most appropriate method for the area [reference3, reference4]. To stabilize production and supply of pigs, based on the three-year action plan, MARA will strengthen ASF surveillance reporting, supervise entire swine industry value chain, control swill feeding, continue piloting prevention and control by region, timely provision of depopulation subsidies, accelerate ASF vaccine research, promote standardization and large scale pig farming, machineries for pig production, formulate guidelines for mechanization of animal husbandry, strengthen laws and regulations in rural agriculture, and accelerate the revision of animal quarantine regulations [reference5]. On 29 February, MARA released the 2020 edition of the ‘ASF Epidemic Emergency Implementation Plan’ [reference6]. 1) Changed the compensation for culling when ASF was found during transportation if the inspection certificate of origin could be provided; the cost to be shared between places where the outbreak occurred and the place of origin; the outbreak be counted by the place of origin, 2) reduced the number of days used to determine the outbreak response level from 30 days to 21 days, 3) redefined the definition of the epidemic site, i.e. when one single pigsty in a commercial farm with good biosecurity could be effectively isolated from other pigsty, this single pigsty could be identified as the epidemic site. Otherwise, the whole farm was an epidemic site. 4) expanded epidemiological investigation including not only outbreak investigation, but also presence of susceptible animals in the area, tracking and tracing of animals, products as well as other possible fomites for 21 days prior to the outbreak, 5) allowed qualified ASF negative farms to sell their pigs to a qualified slaughtering enterprise in a ‘point to point’ transportation within the affected province, and allowed breeding pigs and suckling pigs move within the province, and 6) revised the measures for dismissing lockdown and resume production for farms, slaughter house and markets in infected zone and control zones; the 2019 edition of the plan was abolished [reference7].

Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China

Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China
Click to enlarge - * Including detection in live pigs in intercepted vehicles. For cases with unknown onset date, detection date, confirmation date or reporting date was used.

Source: Veterinary Bureau, MARA, China.

 

Actions taken by the Republic of Korea

 

 The Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affair requested to the Ministry of Environment to install the 3rd stage wide fences after detecting wild boar cases outside of the wide fence area. The Minister also requested to take additional measure for the first and the second wide fence area, especially those areas using geographical barrier. Pig farms within 10km radius from a location where a positive wild boar case was detected will be tested for environment samples for ASF every week [reference].

Figure 2. Cumulative number of affected communes/week in Viet Nam

Newly affected communes/week in Viet Nam including estimated number of communes affected anytime in the past
(Calculated figure)

 

Actions taken by Viet Nam

 

Viet Nam has implemented movement control of pigs and pig products from affected communes. The Central Committee of the Communist Party issued the Directive (No.34-CT/TW, 20 May) to strengthen their leadership and operational instructions for effective ASF response, control and prevention. National Steering Committee for ASF prevention and control requested National Steering Committee against smuggling and People's Committees of provinces to conduct measures to prevent, promptly detect and strictly handle cases of smuggling, illegal transportation, trafficking of animals, animal products, especially pigs and pig products into Viet Nam (No.10/BCDDTLCP, 16 October). On 19 December 2019, MARD released 3 notices concerning restocking procedure (No.13/BCĐDTLCP), transport procedure for breeding pigs and well processed pork products (No.14/BCĐDTLCP), and promoting pig production and biosafety, as well as production other animals, poultry and aquaculture (No.9523/BNN-TY), and a letter to livestock producers (No.9524/BNN-TY) recommending 1. minimize the risk of disease recurrence in accordance with current regulations and No.13/BCĐDTLCP on restocking; 2. strict application of biosecurity, 3. avoid hoarding to ensure price stability; 4. not be involved in illegal trading of pigs or slaughtered pigs across the Vietnam border [reference].

 

Actions taken by Cambodia

 

Cambodia implemented movement control of live pigs, pork and pork products, stamping out, disposal and disinfection in affected villages. Further investigations have been carried out in neighbouring areas. The authorities are strengthening farm biosecurity and testing animals at slaughterhouses [reference].

 

Actions taken by Lao People’s Democratic Republic

 

The Ministry designates Red Area around an outbreak, to control the movement of pig and pork products, and prohibits pork consumption; and yellow Area (3 km radius from the red areas) as designated surveillance zones.

 

Actions taken by the Philippines

 

The Philippines has been implementing its 1-7-10 protocol to manage, contain and control the spread of the disease. Zoning was introduced to divide the country into Free Zone and Containment Zone, and the Containment Zone is further divided into infected zones, buffer zones, surveillance zones, and protected zones [reference2]. In Mindanao Island, the Regional Animal Disease Task Force was launched for Davao Region, enforcing strict 24/7 animal movement management, and conduct “trace-back” and “trace-forward” investigations [reference3, reference4, reference5]. On 7 February, the President Rodrigo R. Duterte issued Memorandum Order No. 22, ordering all government agencies and local government units (LGUs) to ensure the implementation of the nationwide zoning plan developed by the Department of Agriculture (DA) to control and contain the spread of ASF [reference6]. On 21 February, the President signed Executive Order No.105 to create a national task force, to prevent and control animal diseases such as ASF. The task force would be chaired by Agriculture Secretary with Health Secretary as vice-chair, other members include Secretaries of Executive, Interior, Environment, Trade, Finance, Budget, Social welfare and development, Foreign affairs, Transportation, Defence, Labour, Justice, Tourism, as well as Customs commissioner and Chief, Technical education and skills development. The national task force will 1) formulate policies, regulations and measures to address issues related to animal diseases; 2) develop a national risk reduction program and a comprehensive framework to fight against animal diseases. It will also supervise and monitor 3) the implementation of policies, regulations, measures and programs; 4) zoning and movement plans; and ensure compliance. It is also tasked to 5) develop and implement a national public awareness campaign on animal-borne disease; 6) develop programs such as financial aids, skill trainings to citizens affected by animal diseases; 7) revise contingency and action plans of emergent response for animal disease control; and 8) submit timely reports the status of animal disease [reference7].  The President instructed that pigs free of ASF should be branded to prevent further contamination and speed up the flow of pork and products in the country [reference8].

 

Actions taken by Indonesia

 

On 19 December, the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) recommended the public to: isolate sick animals and equipment, and de-stock pig pens for 2 months; put pigs that died from ASF in a bag which must be buried immediately by officials; refrain from selling/consuming pigs/carcasses affected by ASF; and concluded that the main strategic steps to prevent ASF from occurring are through the application of biosecurity and good management of pig farms, as well as strict and intensive monitoring of high-risk areas. It advised provinces with high pig populations e.g. Nusa Tenggara Timur, North Sulawesi, West Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, Bali, Central Java, Central Sulawesi, Riau Islands, and Papua to be alert to the possibility of ASF disease. MoA suggested enhancing awareness raising with farmers and advocacy to local leaders regarding the ASF threat [reference1]. The Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DG PKH) has formed 102 Emergency Posts with Rapid Response Teams at all levels, in response to the Minister of Agriculture Decree (No.820/Kpts/PK.32/M/12/2019, 12 December). ASF control in North Sumatra has been carried out in an integrated manner by a Joint Team involving regional agencies [reference2]. The Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DGLAHS) deployed a team consisting of the Director of Animal Health, DGLAHS DIC Denpasar investigators, and NTT provincial animal health officials to investigate and contain the outbreak of increased sudden pig deaths in East Nusa Tenggara Province [reference3]. DGLAHS representatives requested regional pig producers to raise awareness of the possible spread of ASF and strengthen ASF surveillance along pig value chains between regions [reference4].

 

Actions taken by Timor-Leste

 

After the first ASF outbreak in Timor-Leste, the government formed a taskforce team from the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAP), customs, Quarantine, Border Patrol Police, Immigration, and the Food Safety Authority (AIFAESA) to control African swine fever. MAP also implemented a movement ban of pig and pork products between districts [reference].

 

Additional news on unusual pig deaths

 

Papua New Guinea

A pig die-off has occurred in Southern Highlands Province. As of 29 February 2020, more than 300 pigs have died/sick of unknown cause. FAO is facilitating the National Agriculture and Quarantine Inspection Authority (NAQIA) to confirm the cause.

 

 FAO’s recommendations

ASF virus can be transmitted through pork and pork products (raw/frozen/dried/under-cooked) in which the virus can survive for a long time. Intensive customs control of passengers’ luggage is recommended during the high risk period from the end of December 2019 to the beginning of February 2020, covering Christmas, New Year, Lunar New Year holidays. Warning signs should be placed clearly at the border/customs entry including air ports and sea ports, stating the consequences of bringing pork and pork products from ASF-infected countries/regions, and instructing passengers to discard pork products in designated disposal places or to hand over to the customs personnel.

 

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Preparedness (e.g. contingency planning, standard operating procedures— SOPs, secured financial support) for improved early warning, detection and notification, early reaction, and coordination needs to be in place and reviewed periodically in relation to changing disease situation.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Good communication and coordination with swine producing commercial sector and swine famers are essential to strengthen cooperation in ASF prevention, detection, and control. Awareness and training of all stakeholders, from veterinarians to farmers, intermediaries and other value chain actors is needed.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Farm registries, animal identification and censuses are essential to enable animal health interventions.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.
  • Outbreak control strategies must be in place. The strategies need to be developed in consultation with the private sector (pig producers and allied industries, such as transport, feed operators) for improved disease management options and compliance.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  • Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management.

 

 FAO’s actions

  • Call for Action “African swine fever unprecedented global threat: a challenge to food security, wildlife management and conservation” to be held at FAO headquarters in Rome, Italy on 28-29 April 2020 [reference].
  • FAO conducted an ASF risk assessment mission in Samoa to provide support for ASF preparedness to prevent the disease entering the country (February 2020) [reference].
  • Dr B. Tijani, Assistant Director General, FAO participated in the High-Level International Conference - The future of global pork production under the threat of African swine fever, organized by the European Commission in Berlin on 17 January 2020 [reference].
  • FAO EMC-AH mission to Timor-Leste to assess ASF situation and response strategy (December 2019)
  • First cohort of trainees have completed the FAO tutored e-learning course on ASF (December 2019) and plans to offer this in 2020 to multiple regions developed.
  • The 2019 Annual Coordination meeting of the Project Steering Committee for the FAO-China South-South Cooperation project was held in Kunming City, China, including discussion on ‘ASF prevention and control’ (December 2019).
  • ECTAD/FAO co-organized the 3rd Meeting of the GF-TADs standing group of experts on African swine fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia and 4th regional workshop on swine disease control in Asia (November 2019) [reference].
  • The Regional Laboratory Coordinator undertook a mission to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to provide laboratory equipment, reagents and training on ASF diagnostic methodologies (4-8 November 2019).
  • FAO EMC-AH mission to Papua New Guinea to assess ASF preparedness and response strategy (October) [reference]
  • ECTAD Viet Nam uploaded a video clip to YouTube on technical advice [reference].
  • Inception Workshop for the Regional Technical Cooperation Programme on African Swine Fever Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia was held in Bangkok (August 2019) [reference].
  • ECTAD/FAO Regional office for Asia and the Pacific attended the 2nd standing group of experts on African swine fever (SGE-ASF) meeting for Asia held in Tokyo, Japan (July 2019) [reference].
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Lao PDR to assess the ASF situation and preparedness and response strategy (June 2019).
  • FAO and World Bank joint presentation at the G7 CVO meeting (May 2019).
  • OIE and FAO delivered a joint presentation on ASF at the 87th OIE General Session, OIE, Paris (May 2019).
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Cambodia from 27 May to assess the ASF situation and response strategy (May 2019).
  • In Cambodia, the private sector organized an awareness-training program entitled "Breeding pigs under ASF threat", at which FAO ECTAD Cambodia presented the regional ASF situation (May 2019).
  • FAO project on ASF Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia” started (April 2019).
  • Beijing International Symposium on ASF was jointly organized by MARA, FAO and OIE in Beijing (APRIL 2019).
  • The GF-TADS Standing Group of Experts (SGE) on ASF for Asia was held in Beijing, hosted by MARA (April 2019).
  • FAO in collaboration with the General Directorate of Animal Health and Production (GDAHP), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cambodia, organized a National Consultative Workshop on the Development of ASF Preparedness and Response Plan (ASF-CPRP) in Cambodia (April 2019).
  • FAO organized a workshop on ASF Preparedness & Response Plan and portable PCR in Cambodia (April 2019)....[and more]

Useful links

  • African swine fever (ASF) detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017) [English, Русский, 中文]
  • African Swine Fever in wild boar - Ecology and biosecurity [Link]
  • Carcass management for small- and medium-scale livestock farms [Link]
  • FAO FOOD OUTLOOK [May’19, ASF special report from p65; Nov’19]
  • Korean Experience on ASF. Presentation by MAFRA at the high-level international conference in Berlin, Germany [Link]
  • Presentations of the 2nd Standing Group of Experts on African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia [Link]
  • Presentations of the 1st Standing Group of Experts on African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia are available here
  • Presentations of the International Symposium on Prevention and Control of ASF also available Part 1: Strategy, Part 2: Eradication, Part 3: Control measures, Part 4: Diagnosis and vaccines.
  • Regional strategy for the control of ASF in Africa (FAO, AU-IBAR and ILRI, 2017) [Link]
  • Manual on the preparation of African swine fever contingency plans (2001) [Link]
  • Rapid risk assessment of ASF introduction into China (Mar 2018) [Link]
  • Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials [Link]
  • Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector (2010) [Link
  • ASF awareness video [Link]
  • OIE disease card [Link], OIE Manual (2012) [Link], OIE Code [Link], OIE biweekly ASF situation reports [Link]
  • Global ASF Research Alliance [Link
  • Official map of ASF detection in Russian Federation in far-eastern Siberia 2007-2019 [Link]