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ARCHIVEASF China situation update

14 December 2018, 16:00 hours; Rome

The next update will be issued on 21 December 2018

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal animal disease affecting pigs and wild boars with up to 100% mortality.
Affected provinces: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan and Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Qinghai Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

Map 1. Map of ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date)

Map of ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date, information source: Veterinary Bureau, MoARA, China)
Click to enlarge - Information source: Veterinary Bureau, MoARA, China.

 

 Situation update

Since the China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MoARA) confirmed its first African swine fever (ASF) outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, 89 outbreaks of ASF detected in 22 Provinces/Autonomous Region/Municipalities. More than 630,000 pigs have been culled in an effort to halt further spread.

 

  • Qinghai Province: on 12 December, the first ASF outbreak in Qinghai Province was reported on one farm with 69 pigs in Datong Hui and Tu Autonomous County [reference].
  • Sichuan Province: ASF outbreak occurred on one farm with 117 pigs in Bazhou District, Bazhong City [reference].
  • Guizhou Province: ASF outbreak occurred on one farm with 26 pigs in Baiyun District, Guiyang City [reference].
  • Shaanxi Province: ASF outbreaks occurred on one farm with 33 pigs in Shenmu City, Yulin City [reference].

 

Actions taken by China

 

The Government set a 3 km epidemic zone and a 10 km buffer zone around the epidemic zone. Within a province, movement of live pigs from the county/city/province where ASF occurred is suspended; live pig markets in infected provinces and adjacent provinces are closed; movement of live pigs and pork products from provinces with more than 2 infected cities is prohibited; transport of live pigs from provinces adjacent to ASF-affected are suspended. Breeding pigs can be transported from provinces with epidemic zone with a laboratory ASF test certificate; but it is not allowed to pass through provinces with epidemic zone when transporting live pigs [reference].

 

The Government has been strengthening transport of pork meat rather than of live pigs [reference]. Studies showed that 62% of the first 21 ASF events in China were related to swill feeding. A nationwide ban on swill feeding to pigs, record keeping of livestock transportation vehicles has been implemented [reference]. On 30 October, MoARA launched a three-month investigation campaign against illegal slaughter [reference]. The requirements on pig transport vehicles were intensified [reference].

 

The ASF virus from a wild boar case in November in Jilin Province showed genetic differences from those analysed from outbreaks in domestic pigs [reference]. On 10 December, MoARA and Ministry of Natural Resources released a joint notice on “Strengthening the Joint Prevention and Control Work on ASF in domestic pigs and wild boars”. This included the following measures: sharing information on outbreaks in pigs and unusual death of wild boars, coordinating monitoring and investigation, strengthening epidemiological analysis; strengthening active surveillance in high risk areas e.g. wild and domestic pig interface, wild boar habitats in autumn-winter period, elevated hills within 50 km from outbreaks; Breaking up the cycle of transmission, no swill feeding to domestic and wild pigs, enhancing biosecurity, prohibit the practice of sharing workers and staff between breeders, prohibiting pig breeders and wild boar farms to introduce wild animals, no free range pig farming in wild boar habitat [reference].

 

Epidemiological study revealed three major causes spreading ASF virus: 46% by vehicles and workers without disinfection, 34% by swill feeding, and 19% by transport of live pigs and their products across regions [reference]. Meat products in passengers’ luggage tested positive for ASF at port/airports in Taiwan Province [reference1, reference2, reference3].

 

After assessment, Epidemic Zones were lifted in Taojiang County, Yiyang City, Hunan Province on 7 December [reference], Hezhang County and Qixingguan District of Bijie City, Guizhou Province on 13 December [reference], since there was no further detection for 6 weeks after culling of pigs within an affected zone. As of 13 December, 37 Epidemic Zones have been lifted.

Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month*

Number of pigs transported across provincial boundary (blue), and wholesale meat (brown), deboned carcass (orange), or live pig (pink) price/kg in China
Click to enlarge- Information source: Veterinary Bureau, MoARA, China.
* For cases with unknown onset date, detection date, confirmation date or reporting date was used.

 

Table 1. List of affected cities since 3 August 2018

Province

Cities with affected areas

Last reported onset*

Heilongjiang

Jiamusi City

03/09/2018

Harbin City 14/11/2018
Heihe City 28/11/2018

Inner Mongolia

XilinGol League

15/09/2018

Xing’an League

17/09/2018

Hohhot City

22/09/2018

Baotou City

21/11/2018

Jilin

Siping City 17/09/2018
Songyuan City 28/09/2018
Yanbian Korean
Autonomous Prefecture
02/11/2018
Baishan City 16/11/2018

Liaoning

Shenyang City 07/09/2018
Yingkou City 07/10/2018
Anshan City 12/10/2018
Dalian City 09/10/2018
Jinzhou City 13/10/2018
Panjin City 15/10/2018
Tieling City 14/10/2018

Beijing

  04/12/2018

Tianjin

  29/11/2018

Shanxi

Datong City 16/10/2018
Taiyuan City 30/10/2018
Linyi City 06/12/2018

Shanghai

  15/11/2018

Jiangsu

Lianyungang City 15/08/2018
Wuxi City 29/08/2018

Zhejiang

Wenzhou City 17/08/2018
Taizhou City 18/10/2018

Anhui

Wuhu City 31/08/2018
Xuancheng City 31/08/2018
Chuzhou City 02/09/2018
Tongling City 07/09/2018
Chizhou City 07/11/2018

Fujian

Putian City 06/11/2018

Jiangxi

Shangrao City 16/11/2018
Jiujiang City 29/11/2018

Henan

Zhengzhou City 14/08/2018
Xinxiang City 10/09/2018

Hubei

Huanggang City 12/11/2018
Huangshi City 25/11/2018

Hunan

Yiyang City 28/09/2018
Changde City 22/10/2018
Huaihua City 14/11/2018
Xiangxi Tujia and Miao
Autonomous Prefecture
31/10/2018
Loudi City 22/10/2018

Chongqing

  02/11/2018

Sichuan

Yibin City 13/11/2018
Chengdu City 13/11/2018
Luzhou City 27/11/2018
Bazhong City 12/12/2018

Guizhou

Bijie City 24/10/2018
Guiyang City 06/12/2018

Yunnan

Zhaotong City 16/11/2018
Pu'er City 27/10/2018
Kunming City 17/11/2018

Shaanxi

Xi'an City 27/11/2018
Yulin City 03/12/2018

Qinghai

Xining City 12/12/2018

* For cases with unknown onset date, detection date or reporting date was used.

 

 FAO’s recommendations

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Preparedness (e.g. contingency planning, standard operating procedures— SOPs, secured financial support) for improved early warning, detection and notification, early reaction, and coordination needs to be in place and reviewed periodically in relation to changing disease situation.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Good communication and coordination with swine producing commercial sector and swine famers are essential to strengthen cooperation in ASF prevention, detection, and control. Awareness and training of all stakeholders, from veterinarians to farmers, intermediaries and other value chain actors is needed.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Farm registries, animal identification and censuses are essential to enable animal health interventions.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.
  • Outbreak control strategies must be in place. The strategies need to be developed in consultation with the private sector (pig producers and allied industries, such as transport, feed operators) for improved disease management options and compliance.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  • Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management.

 FAO’s actions

  • FAO and MoARA jointly organized the Multilateral Cross-Border Meeting in Greater Mekong Subregion to Strengthen Collaboration of Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Beijing China, 22-24 November 2018 which included “African Swine Fever Emergency Preparedness training” for Lao PDR, Myanmar, Viet Nam and China [reference].
  • On 16 November, FAO-China, Chief/AGAH and CVO met with MoARA Vice Minister and senior staff of Veterinary Bureau and China Animal Disease Control Center. A call for solidarity to address the expanding global threat of ASF to the G20 was suggested by Chinese officials [reference]. .
  • On 23 October, Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) of FAO sent a message to CVOs of China and Southeast Asian Countries encouraging further preparedness and vigilance [reference].
  • FAO and MoARA jointly held a Technical Consultation on ‘Application of Technology to Strengthen ASF Control through Rapid Detection and Response’ on 11-12 October 2018 in Beijing, China, with participants from Veterinary Bureau/MoARA, China Animal Disease Control Center (CADC), China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center (CAHEC) [reference].
  • FAO organized an “Emergency Regional Consultation on African Swine Fever on Risk Reduction and Preparedness” in Bangkok, September 2018 [reference].
  • FAO mission to Mongolia and China (April 2018) to explore opportunities in wild boar surveillance.
  • FAO publication on ASF spread in Asia (March 2018) and urged regional collaboration including  preparedness measures [reference].

Useful links

  • African swine fever (ASF) detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017) [English, Русский, 中文]
  • Regional strategy for the control of ASF in Africa (FAO, AU-IBAR and ILRI, 2017) [Link]
  • Manual on the preparation of African swine fever contingency plans (2001) [Link]
  • Rapid risk assessment of ASF introduction into China (Mar 2018) [Link]
  • Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials [Link]
  • Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector (2010) [Link
  • ASF awareness video [Link]
  • OIE disease card [Link], OIE Manual (2012) [Link], OIE Code [Link]
  • OIE weekly ASF situation reports [Link]
  • Global ASF Research Alliance [Link