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ASF situation in Asia & Pacific update

4 March 2021, 08:30 hours; Rome

The next issue will be distributed on 19 March 2021.

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease affecting pigs and wild boar with up to 100% case fatality rate.

ASF reported administrative areas since August 2018:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong and Hainan Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Zhuang, Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Regions and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR).
Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Töv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.
Viet Nam: All provinces and municipalities.
Cambodia: Ratanakiri, Tboung Khmum, Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kandal Provinces.
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Chagang-Do.
Lao People’s Democratic Republic: All provinces and municipality.
Myanmar: Shan, Kachin, Kayah States and Sagaing Region.
The Philippines: Albay, Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Benguet, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Cavite, Davao de Oro, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Occidental, Davao Oriental, Ifugao, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Kalinga, La Union, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Leyte, North Cotabato, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Sarangani, Sorsogon, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Zambales Provinces and Metro Manila (Caloocan, Malabon and Quezon Cities).
Republic of Korea: Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do and Incheon City.
Timor-Leste: All districts.
Indonesia: North Sumatra, Riau, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, Bali, and East Nusa Tenggara Provinces.
Papua New Guinea: Southern Highlands, Enga, Hela, Western Highlands and Jiwaka Provinces.
India: Assam State.
Disputed territory: Arunachal Pradesh.
Malaysia: Sabah State.

Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (for the past 10 weeks)

ASF situation in Asia (for the past 10 weeks)
Click to enlarge - Source: China: MARA, Viet Nam: WAHIS & media information, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Indonesia, Timor-Leste: WAHIS and government websites, Other: WAHIS.

 

 Situation update

Mongolia

Since its first report on 15 January 2019, 11 outbreaks in 6 provinces and in Ulaanbaatar have been reported, involving 105 farms/households. More than 3 115 pigs, more than 10 percent of the total pig population in Mongolia, have died/been destroyed due to the ASF outbreaks [reference].

 

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

Since the Ministry of Agriculture confirmed the occurrence of the first ASF outbreak in Chagang-do on 23 May 2019 [reference].

 

Republic of Korea

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 17 September 2019, ASF was detected in 16 domestic pig farms: Gyeonggi-do (9), Incheon City (5), Gangwon-do (2). Since 9 October 2019 as of 24 February 2021, a total of 1 138 ASFV infected wild boars were confirmed in: Gyonggi-do: Paju (98), Yeoncheon (352), Pocheon (52), Gapyeong (16); Gangwon-do: Cheorwon (35), Hwacheon (374), Chuncheon (86), Yanggu (44), Goseong (4), Inje (60), Yeongwol (9), Yangyang (7) and Gangneung (1) [reference].

 

China

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed the first outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, ASF were detected in 32 Provinces/Autonomous Regions/Municipalities/Special Administrative Region. Media reported detection of a natural mutation in the ASFV was published in China. MARA reported detection of ASF in pigs on a vehicle being illegally transported into Yunnan province [reference1]. Detection of lower virulent ASF viruses from samples collected between June and December 2020 from domestic pigs in Hubei, Heilongjiang and Hebei Provinces was published. The lower virulent variants are found to be non-hemadsorbing (non-HAD) phenotype; two of them were tested in pigs and showed lower virulence and high transmissibility. Pigs inoculated with 103 TCID50 of HLJ/HRB1/20 (one of the non-HAD variants) presented mild clincal signs and all survived for the test duration of 28 days; the two contact pigs did not show clear disease signs till euthanized for necropsy on day 28 although viral DNA was detectable in the oral and rectal swabs, and in the blood of one pig [reference2, reference3, reference4].

 

The Philippines

Since the Department of Agriculture (DA) confirmed the first ASF outbreak started on July 2019, ASF outbreaks have been reported on Luzon, Mindanao and Leyte Islands. In Leyte province, ASF virus was also reported in towns of Tanauan, Palo, and MacArthur; two towns of Pastrana and Burauen [reference1] ; and on 26 February 2021, Tacloban City also confirmed the first ASF case [reference2]. ASF-hit piggeries in the province are mostly owned by backyard pig raisers. Initial investigation showed that the ASF virus could have been transmitted to local farms in Leyte through infected boar being used for natural mating and by pig traders who may have fed their stocks with contaminated food products. [reference3].

 

Malaysia

Malaysia reported outbreaks of ASF in four backyard farms and ASF virus detection in five wildboar carcasses occurred between 8 and 11 February 2021 in three districts in Sabah state. This was the first time that ASF was confirmed in Malaysia [reference1, reference2].

 

Indonesia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) confirmed an ASF outbreak in Indonesia, as of 6 March, the number of ASF infected areas in North Sumatra province reached 21 districts / cities [reference1]. On 19 February 2021, reports on 443 outbreaks ranging from West Sumatra province (December 2019) through Nusa Tenggara Timur Province were posted on OIE WAHIS. ASF is now confirmed on Java and Bali as well as Eastern Nusa Tenagga islands According to the report, the disease spread to 10 out of 34 Provinces in Indonesia [reference2].

 

Timor-Leste

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries announced the confirmation of ASF outbreak on 27 September 2019. The disease started on 9 September, and spread to all districts of the country by December 2019 [reference].

 

Papua New Guinea

The National Agriculture Quarantine and Inspection Authority (NAQIA) confirmed four ASF outbreaks in four villages (Tubiri, Tente, Was and Pulum) in Mendi Munihu District, Southern Highlands Province (SHP) on 5 March 2020 [reference1, reference2]. Surveillance conducted in May 2020 showed that ASF has spread within the three Provinces (SHP, Hela and Enga Provinces) in a total of ten districts. In January 2021, ASF cases were confirmed in Western Highlands Province (WHP) and Jiwaka Province. These two provinces will be declared as diseased area, making the total number of infected provinces to five (Hela, SHP, Enga, WHP and Jiwaka Provinces).

 

Viet Nam

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) confirmed its first ASF outbreak on 19 February 2019, all 63 provinces/cities experienced outbreaks. MARD reported that ASF caused a loss of about 6 million pigs,  but by the end of 2020 the total sow has increased to 3 million, the total number of pigs reached over 26 million, equaling 85% of the pre-ASF level. Compared to before the epidemic, large livestock enterprises grew 160% [reference].

Map 2. Provinces where no new ASF outbreaks for more than 21 days (blue) in Viet Nam

Provinces where no new ASF outbreaks for more than 21 days (blue) in Viet Nam

 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Salavan Province on 20 June 2019, ASF outbreaks were reported in all 18 Provinces between May and November 2019. The second round started from June 2020, ASF was detected in 15 districts in 7 provinces.

 

Cambodia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Ratanakiri Province on 2 April 2019, ASF outbreaks were detected in five provinces [reference1]. Media reported that ASF was found on 7 February 2021 in illegally imported pigs intercepted at two checkpoints in Banteay Meanchey province, quoting a statement from the ministry’s General Directorate of Animal Health and Production (GDAHP) [reference2, reference3].

 

Myanmar

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 1 August 2019, a total of six ASF outbreaks were reported in Shan State, two in Sagaing Region and one each in Kachin and Kayah States [reference].

 

India

Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying announced the confirmation of ASF outbreaks (Genotype II) in Assam State that occurred in January-April 2020 [reference1]. Meghalaya State confirmed ASF cases in three districts of East, West and South West Khasi Hills, Ri-Bhoi and West Jaintia Hills districts [reference2]. In Manipur state, ASF has been reported in Salungpham area in Thoubal district and Nongmaiching Chingkhong area in Imphal East district, according to media [reference3].

 

Disputed territory (Arunachal Pradesh)

Four ASF outbreaks that occurred between 26 January and 23 April 2020 in domestic pigs were reported in East Siang and Papum Pare districts [reference1]. According to media, wild boars also died in East Siang district and Upper Siang district [reference2] and a publication reported local people saw dead wild boars in the rivulets in Pasighat region [reference3].

 

 

Actions taken by the Republic of Korea

 

MAFRA announced to strengthen biosecurity measures to prevent ASF spillover from wild boar to domestic pigs, since wild boar cases were detected outside of wider fence area: 1) control wild boar population, 2) remove contaminants, 3) reinforcement of basic farm biosecurity, and 4) movement control of live pigs and manure to block spread of ASF by dividing in 16 areas [reference1]. To be prepared for wild boars’ breeding season (April-May), MAFRA identified 18 districts as ASF control zone since October 2020 and enforced installion of eight biosecurity measures by May 2021 [reference2]. 

 

Actions taken by China

 

On 10 August 2020, MARA released “Technical Guidelines for Normalized Prevention and Control of African Swine Fever (Trial version)" which include detail guidance on pig production by production type and scale, transportation and slaughter, and other aspects including laboratory for self-testing [reference1]. In accordance with the ‘standard for African swine fever free zone’ and the ‘Technical Norms on Animal Disease-Free Community Management’ released in December 2019 [reference2], many local authorities have conducted the assessment of the ASF free communities [reference3]. MARA launched a special action to crack down illegal pig slaughter starting from mid-December through mid-February, intensified inspection in urban-rural interfaces, major traffic roads [reference4]. In order to implement the above-mentioned “normalized prevention and control of African swine fever”, MARA will continue sampling at slaughterhouses, disposal plants, and pig transportation vehicles around randomly select five large-scale pig farms (>5 000 pigs/year) which will be tested at six well known veterinary laboratories [reference5]. On 23 January 2021, Chinese Government released a revision of its Animal Disease Control Law which comes into force on 1 May. In the revision, ASF, together with FMD, HPAI, is listed as an example of category I (top level) diseases. The revision will contribute to nationwide, coordinated, and timely responses [reference6]. On 25 February 2021, MARA organized the national video conference on major animal disease prevention and control work plan for 2021, and its prevention and control by zoning,  emphasized to strictly crack down illegal production/use of ASF vaccines, establish disease-free zones/compartment, and law-based disease control [reference7].

Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village* by region by onset month in China

Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China
Click to enlarge - * Including detection in live pigs in intercepted vehicles. For cases with unknown onset date, confirmation date or reporting date was used.
Source: Veterinary bureau, MARA, China.

 

Actions taken by the Philippines

 

The local authorities in the Philippines are mandated to strictly follow the National Zoning implementation and movement plan depending on the level of ASF risks [reference1]. The governments of Leyte, Malinao, and Antique have launched movement restrictions, setting up checkpoint, banning live pigs and/or pork products [reference2, reference3, reference4, reference5]. Sows have been distributed to pig raisers in ASF-free area to increase pork production as a part of Integrated National Swine Production Initiatives for Recovery and Expansion (INSPIRE) programme launched by DA [reference6]. To address national shortage, massive pig production program has been piloted in free-ASF areas in North Cotabato [reference7]. DA kicks off an aquaculture project in Quezon City converting pigpen to fish pond as an alternative livelihood for farmers affected by ASF [reference8].

 

Actions taken by Malaysia

 

To response to the first confirmed outbreak in Sabah, the pigs tested postive for ASF, and pigs within 50 km from the affected area have been culled [reference1]. The authority of Sarawak is enforcing its import ban on pig, pork and pork products by tightening inspections at border gates and all entrances throughout Sarawk. Any violations would face either fine or jail [reference2, reference3]

 

Actions taken by Indonesia

 

On 17 December 2019, Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) recommended the public the application of biosecurity and good management of pig farms as the main strategic steps to prevent ASF, as well as strict and intensive monitoring of high-risk areas [reference1]. In December 2019, the Livestock and Animal Health Services (DG PKH) formed Emergency Posts with Rapid Response Teams at all levels [reference2], in February 2020, the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DGLAHS) requested regional pig producers to raise awareness of the possible spread of ASF and strengthen ASF surveillance along pig value chains between regions [reference3]. Disposal of the dead pigs, cleansing and disinfection have been implemented in affected areas. The transportation of live pigs between areas and contaminated fomite from an animal handler, vehicle and animal remain the main risk for disease spread [reference4].

 

Actions taken by Timor-Leste

 

After the first ASF outbreak in Timor-Leste, the government formed a taskforce team from the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAP), Customs, Quarantine, Border Patrol Police, Immigration, and the Food Safety Authority (AIFAESA) and implemented a movement ban of pig and pork products between Municipalities [reference1]. The final report of the Australian project ‘Identifying husbandry options for smallholder pig farmers in Timor-Leste’ which was hit by ASF in the middle of implementation describes what was done to mitigate ASF risk [reference2].

 

Actions taken by Papua New Guinea

 

©NIQIAPapua New Guinea (PNG) has implemented an emergency response action to contain the ASF outbreak in Southern Highlands, Enga and Hela provinces [reference]. NAQIA set up Road checkpoints at strategic provincial entry and exit points; conducted surveillance to determine the extent of the ASF spread; identified sentinel herds in the infected provinces; stepped up its ASF national risk communications and awareness campaign; and enhanced advocacy on ASF with communities, district and provincial administrations. ASF response work for affected provinces and preparedness activities for other non-infected provinces along the highway. With the spread of ASF to two neighboring provinces, the containment line (Checkpoints) have been relocated to cover WHP and Jiwaka province as well. The sentinel herd surveillance has commenced in the diseased area. (poster: © NIQIA)

 

Actions taken by Viet Nam

 

The "National Plan for the Prevention and Control of African Swine Fever for the period of 2020 - 2025" was endorsed on 7 July (972/QD-TTg) set goals for ASF control, pig farm biosecurity application and laboratory capacity development to be achieved; defined restocking conditions, sampling requirements, surveillance, conditions for culling and moving-to-slaughter [reference1]. MARD sent an Official Letter No.7258/BNN-TY to the People's Committees of 30 provinces and cities urging further disease control activities, vigilance and biosecurity [reference2].

Figure 2. Cumulative number of affected communes/week since Tet 2020 in Viet Nam

Cumulative number of affected communes/week since Tet 2020 in Viet Nam

 

Actions taken by Lao People’s Democratic Republic

 

After ASF outbreaks confirmed in 2019, The Ministry designates Red Area around an outbreak, to control the movement of pig and pork products, and prohibits pork consumption; and yellow Area (3 km radius from the red areas) as designated surveillance zones. When ASF reemerged in June 2020, the Government has declared red zones and is implementing movement control of animals and their products, destruction, disinfection, active surveillance, etc. As of December 2020, all zones have been lifted.

 

Actions taken by Cambodia

 

Cambodia implemented movement control of live pigs, pork and pork products, stamping out, disposal and disinfection in affected villages [reference1]. In response to the recent ASF detection at border checkpoints, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries ordered authorities to cull all pigs in the area, according to media [reference2]. After detecting ASF in pigs being imported from neighboring country in mid-February, GDAHP is implementing ASF screening test on imported pigs using ‘Portable PCR’ at border quarantine stations before sending them to Phnom Penh and other provinces [reference3].

 

Actions taken by Myanmar

 

Myanmar implemented movement control of live pigs, surveillance within containment and/or protection zone, official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste, disinfection when ASF outbreak was detected and raise awareness on good animal husbandry practices and biosecurity. According to media, in response to the ASF outbreak, educational seminars in villages were conducted, leaflets were distributed in markets, and information were sent to all communities from the township management committee to stop the spread of the disease; no pigs had died since 25 November 2020 [reference].

 

Actions taken by India

 

The Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying (DAHD) released the Disease Control Strategy Plan in June 2020 as guidance for State / UT Governments for ASF prevention, control and containment [reference1]. In August 2020, following ASF outbreaks, Meghalaya state declared containment zones [reference2]. According to media, Manipur State Veterinary Department has formed its ASF task force, while Thoubal and Imphal East district administrations have banned sales and movement of pigs/pork, feeds and related items from the control/contaminated areas [reference3, reference4].

 

 FAO’s recommendations

ASF virus can be transmitted through pork and pork products (raw/frozen/dried/under-cooked) in which the virus can survive for a long time. Intensive border/customs control of passengers’ luggage is recommended. Warning signs should be placed clearly at the border/customs entry including airports and sea ports, stating the consequences of bringing pork and pork products from ASF-infected countries/regions, and instructing passengers to discard pork products in designated disposal places or to hand over to the customs personnel.

 

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  •  Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management.

 

 FAO’s actions

  • FAO co-organised the Standing Group pf Experts for African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia and the Pacific, together with the OIE, held online on 5 February 2021.
  • FAO ECTAD Myanmar conducted a sub-national level virtual training on ASF detection and emergency response in Myanmar, together with the Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department (LBVD), in collaboration with FAO ECTAD RAP. The interactive training course comprises seven modules with excercise which each participant to respond week-by-week. There are 85 particiants from public and private veterinary sectors, academia, and associations.
  • FAO ECTAD Cambodia held series of training courses on ASF in Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kampong provinces. [link]
  • FAO ECTAD RAP organized a 2-day virtual training on ASF risk communication for Asia & Pacific (December 2020).
  • FAO ECTAD Indonesia, in collaboration with DGLAHS, is organizing an online capacity building course on ASF prevention & control for eight high risk provinces. The course includes: biosecurity, biosafety, market / value chain management, etc against ASF introduction; and online ASF ToT course is being planned...[and more]

Useful links

  • OIE guidelines on compartmentalisation for ASF. [link]
  • Video: Be a Champion Farmer!- Biosecurity is key to stop African Swine Fever. [English, Khmer, Lao, Vietnamese, and four languages used in Indonesia (Bahasa, Bali, Batak, Kupang)]
  • Video: Stop ASF by NAQIA - PNG Biosecurity [link]
  • Global Initiative on ASF Control: a GF-TADs Initiative 2020-2025. [English, Française, 中文, Русский, Español]
  • African swine fever detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017). [English, Русский, 中文, Español]
  • Addressing African Swine Fever: Laboratory protocols and algorithms” in collaboration with the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness (ACDP, formerly AAHL). [reference]
  • African swine fever in wild boar: ecology and biosecurity (2019). [link]
  • Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector. [link]
  • Effective disposal of animal carcasses and contaminated materials on small to medium-sized farms. [link]
  • Risk communication in animal disease outbreaks and emergencies (Laboratory protocols and algorithms). [link]
  • FAO FOOD OUTLOOK. [May 2019, ASF special report from p65; Nov.2020]
  • Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials. [link]
  • OIE webinar on ASF cross-border risk assessment study in South-East Asia [Link, recording1, recording2]. 
  • GF-TADs webinar presentations. [link]

New articles

  • Emergence and prevalence of naturally occurring lower virulent African swine fever viruses in domestic pigs in China in 2020. [link]
  • Modelling the global economic consequences of a major African swine fever outbreak in China. [link]
  • Editorial: African Swine Fever. Research Topic. [link]
  • Next-generation diagnostics: virus capture facilitates a sensitive viral diagnosis for epizootic and zoonotic pathogens including SARS-CoV-2. [link]
  • Novel Application of Nanofluidic Chip Digital PCR for Detection of African Swine Fever Virus. [link]