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ARCHIVEASF situation in Asia update

15 August 2019, 13:00 hours; Rome

The next update will be issued in 22 August 2019

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal animal disease affecting pigs and wild boars with up to 100% case fatality rate.

 

Affected provinces:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan and Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong and Hainan Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Zhuang, Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Regions and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Töv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.

Viet Nam: Hung Yen, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Ha Nam, Hai Duong, Dien Bien, Hoa Binh, Thai Nguyen, Quang Ninh, Ninh Binh, Nam Dinh, Bac Kan, Lang Son, Nghe An, Son La, Bac Ninh, Thua Thien-Hue, Bac Giang, Lai Chau, Quang Tri, Vinh Phuc, Cao Bang, Khanh Hoa, Hau Giang, Vinh Long, Dong Nai, Phu Thọ, Yen Bai, Binh Phuoc, Lao Cai, An Giang, Ha Tinh, Quang Nam, Dak Nong, Kien Giang, Soc Trang, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang, Binh Duong, Ca Mau, Quang Ngai, Dak Lak, Tien Giang, Kon Tum, Bac Lieu, Bình Định, Tra Vinh, Binh Thuan, Quang Binh, Long An, Phu Yen, Ba Ria - Vung Tau, Lam Dong, Ben Tre Provinces, Tay Ninh Provinces, Hai Phong, Ha Noi, Can Tho, Da Nang and Ho Chi Minh Cities.

Cambodia: Ratanakiri, Tboung Khmum, Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kandal Provinces.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Chagang-Do.

Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Salavan, Savannakhet, Phongsaly Province, and Vientiane Capital.

Myanmar: Shan State.

Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (August 2018 to date)

ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date
Click to enlarge - Source: China: MARA, Viet Nam: WAHIS & media information, Other: WAHIS.

 

 Situation update

Mongolia

Since its first report on 15 January 2019, 11 outbreaks in 6 provinces and in Ulaanbaatar have been reported, involving 105 farms/households. More than 3,115 pigs, more than 10 percent of the total pig population in Mongolia, have died/been destroyed due to the ASF outbreaks.

 

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

The Ministry of Agriculture confirmed the occurrence of the first ASF outbreak in Chagang-Do on 23 May 2019.

 

China

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed its first ASF outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, 154 ASF outbreaks detected in 32 Provinces / Autonomous Regions / Municipalities / Special Administrative Region. About 1,170,000 pigs have been culled in an effort to halt further spread.

 

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: 1 vehicle illegally transporting pigs was intercepted at the Huashi Toll Gate of the Qinzhou–Dongxing Expressway in Fangcheng District, Fangchenggang City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region on 8 August; 51 of 52 pigs in the vehicle were sick and 1 found dead. Samples tested positive for ASF [reference].

 

Viet Nam

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) confirmed its first ASF outbreak on 19 February 2019, a total of 62 provinces/cities reported outbreaks, about 4,000,000 pigs have been culled.

 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry confirmed its first ASF outbreak in Toumlan District, Salavane Province on 20 June 2019. New ASF outbreak occurred in Monesavanh and Had xeui Villages, Khoua District on 11 July, and in Boun Neua District, in Phongsaly Province [reference1, reference2].

 

Cambodia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Ratanakiri Province on 2 April 2019, ASF outbreaks were detected in 5 Provinces.

 

Myanmar

The Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Mongla Township, Kengtung District, Shan State [reference1(p13), reference2, reference3(p8)].

 

Actions taken by China

 

MARA released the 2019 edition of the ‘ASF Epidemic Emergency Implementation Plan’ [reference]. MARA updated regulations on pig slaughterhouses: It tasks pig slaughter enterprises to conduct self-inspection by using PCR. If ASF is detected, the slaughtering enterprise should stop production for 48 hours, then apply for evaluation to resume production [reference].

Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China

Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China
Click to enlarge - For cases with unknown onset date, detection date, confirmation date or reporting date was used.

Source: Veterinary Bureau, MARA, China.

 

Following assessment, Epidemic Zone were lifted in Shapotou District, Zhongwei City, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region [reference1] on 8 August, Pingan District, Haidong, Qinghai Province [reference2], Bobai County and Luchuan County, Yulin City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region [reference3], and Pingtang County and Sandu County, Qiannan Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou Province [reference4] on 15 August as there were no new cases reported in the affected areas for 6 weeks.

 

Actions taken by Viet Nam

 

Viet Nam has implemented movement control of pigs and pig products from affected communes; ASF positive farms have been depopulated according to the Action Plan for Emergency Response to ASF [reference]. The Prime Minister Office announced on 7 March the increase of compensation for piglets and fattening pigs to 80%, and x 1.5 – 2.0 of normal compensation rate for sow/boar [reference]. The Central Committee of the Communist Party issued the Directive (No.34-CT/TW, 20 May) to strengthen their leadership and operational instructions for effective implementation of ASF response, control and prevention. MARD issued its new guidance (No.3708/HD-BNN-TY, 28 May) on slaughtering pigs and consumption of pig products. The Prime Minister released a Directive (No.42/NQ-CP, 18 June), which includes: 1) support households, small and medium-sized enterprises keeping grandparent pigs with VND 500,000 /pig (approx. 21 USD/pig) ; 2) support pig raising farmers and enterprises whose pigs are destroyed on the basis of price and pig raising costs suitable for each type of pig; higher support levels for sows and boars; 3) support small and medium enterprises but not exceeding 30% of losses due to epidemics. MARD issued a guidance (No.4178/HD-BNN-TY, 14 June) on Handling and disposal of African swine fever-infected pigs by incineration, and another (No.4249/HD-BNN-TY, 18 June) on Control of transportation of pigs for breeding and commercial farming in and outside ASF areas. In case of pig transportation into and out of epidemic areas located in provincial localities, these pigs have to show negative test results for ASF. If pigs originate from other provincial localities, in addition to negative test results shown for ASF, pigs have to be quarantined and granted quarantine certificates for transportation out of the provincial localities. For pig transportation across epidemic areas, apart from above, notify localities of the pig transportation roadmap. Means of transport have to follow the routes as guided by the veterinary management agency of localities which pig transporting means travel across.

Figure 2. Newly affected communes/week in Viet Nam including estimated number of communes affected anytime in the past

Newly affected communes/week and the distribution by Regional Animal Health Office (RAHO), <strong>Viet Nam
(Calculated figure)

 

Actions taken by Cambodia

 

Cambodia has implemented movement control of live pigs, pork and pork products for the Kampoul Serey and Soay Village, Mean Commune, Oraing Ov district, Tbong Khmum Province. The same measures have been applied in reported ASF outbreaks e.g. stamping out, disposal and disinfection in affected villages. Further investigations and case finding are carried out in neighbouring areas. On 31 July 2019, the Cambodian Prime Minister issued a Circular on preventive measures of illegal imports of pig and all kinds of pork originated products. The Circular directed Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Economy and Finance to take urgent and necessary measures for prevention and control of ASF in the country and from neighbouring countries.

 

 FAO’s recommendations

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Preparedness (e.g. contingency planning, standard operating procedures— SOPs, secured financial support) for improved early warning, detection and notification, early reaction, and coordination needs to be in place and reviewed periodically in relation to changing disease situation.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Good communication and coordination with swine producing commercial sector and swine famers are essential to strengthen cooperation in ASF prevention, detection, and control. Awareness and training of all stakeholders, from veterinarians to farmers, intermediaries and other value chain actors is needed.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Farm registries, animal identification and censuses are essential to enable animal health interventions.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.
  • Outbreak control strategies must be in place. The strategies need to be developed in consultation with the private sector (pig producers and allied industries, such as transport, feed operators) for improved disease management options and compliance.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  • Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management.

 FAO’s actions

  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Lao PDR in June to assess the ASF situation and response strategy.
  • FAO and World Bank delivered a joint presentation at the G7 CVO meeting, May 2019.
  • OIE and FAO delivered a joint presentation on ASF at the 87th OIE General Session, OIE, Paris, May 2019.
  • FAO project on ASF Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia”, April 2019.
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Cambodia from 27 May to assess the ASF situation and response strategy.
  • In Cambodia, the private sector organized an awareness-training program entitled "Breeding pigs under ASF threat" on 9 May, at which FAO ECTAD Cambodia presented the regional ASF situation.
  • Beijing International Symposium on ASF was jointly organized by MARA, FAO and OIE on 8-9 April in Beijing [reference].
  • The 1st meeting of GF-TADS Standing Group of Experts (SGE) on ASF for Asia was held in Beijing, hosted by MARA.
  • The 1st meeting of GF-TADS Standing Group of Experts (SGE) on ASF for Asia was held in Beijing, hosted by MARA.
  • FAO in collaboration with the General Directorate of Animal Health and Production (GDAHP), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cambodia, organized a National Consultative Workshop on the Development of ASF Preparedness and Response Plan (ASF-CPRP) in Cambodia on 8-9 April 2019.
  • FAO workshop on ASF Preparedness and Response Plan and portable PCR in Cambodia in April 2019....[and more]

Useful links

  • African swine fever (ASF) detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017) [English, Русский, 中文]
  • FAO FOOD OUTLOOK (ASF special report from p. 71) [Link]
  • Presentations of the 1st Standing Group of Experts on African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia are available here
  • Presentations of the International Symposium on Prevention and Control of ASF also available Part 1: Strategy, Part 2: Eradication, Part 3: Control measures, Part 4: Diagnosis and vaccines.
  • Regional strategy for the control of ASF in Africa (FAO, AU-IBAR and ILRI, 2017) [Link]
  • Manual on the preparation of African swine fever contingency plans (2001) [Link]
  • Rapid risk assessment of ASF introduction into China (Mar 2018) [Link]
  • Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials [Link]
  • Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector (2010) [Link
  • ASF awareness video [Link]
  • OIE disease card [Link], OIE Manual (2012) [Link], OIE Code [Link], OIE weekly ASF situation reports [Link]
  • Global ASF Research Alliance [Link