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ARCHIVEASF situation in Asia update

20 September 2019, 08:00 hours; Rome

The next update will be issued in 26 September 2019

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal animal disease affecting pigs and wild boars with up to 100% case fatality rate.

 

Affected provinces:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan and Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong and Hainan Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Zhuang, Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Regions and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR).
Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Töv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.

Viet Nam: Hung Yen, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Ha Nam, Hai Duong, Dien Bien, Hoa Binh, Thai Nguyen, Quang Ninh, Ninh Binh, Nam Dinh, Bac Kan, Lang Son, Nghe An, Son La, Bac Ninh, Thua Thien-Hue, Bac Giang, Lai Chau, Quang Tri, Vinh Phuc, Cao Bang, Khanh Hoa, Hau Giang, Vinh Long, Dong Nai, Phu Thọ, Yen Bai, Binh Phuoc, Lao Cai, An Giang, Ha Tinh, Quang Nam, Dak Nong, Kien Giang, Soc Trang, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang, Binh Duong, Ca Mau, Quang Ngai, Dak Lak, Tien Giang, Kon Tum, Bac Lieu, Bình Định, Tra Vinh, Binh Thuan, Quang Binh, Long An, Phu Yen, Ba Ria - Vung Tau, Lam Dong, Ben Tre Provinces, Tay Ninh, Ninh Thuan Provinces, Hai Phong, Ha Noi, Can Tho, Da Nang and Ho Chi Minh Cities.

Cambodia: Ratanakiri, Tboung Khmum, Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kandal Provinces.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Chagang-Do.

Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Salavan, Savannakhét, Xékong, Xaisomboun, Xiangkhouang, Houaphan, Phôngsali, Bolikhamxai, Louangphabang, Khammouan, Oudômxai, Luang Namtha, Attapeu Provinces, and  Vientiane Capital.

Myanmar: Shan State.

The Philippines: Rizal and Bulacan Provinces.

Republic of Korea: Gyeonggi-do.

Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (August 2018 to date)

ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date
Click to enlarge - Source: China: MARA, Viet Nam: WAHIS & media information, Other: WAHIS.

 

 Situation update

Mongolia

Since its first report on 15 January 2019, 11 outbreaks in 6 provinces and in Ulaanbaatar have been reported, involving 105 farms/households. More than 3,115 pigs, more than 10 percent of the total pig population in Mongolia, have died/been destroyed due to the ASF outbreaks.

 

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

The Ministry of Agriculture confirmed the occurrence of the first ASF outbreak in Chagang-Do on 23 May 2019 [reference].

 

Republic of Korea

The Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) confirmed the occurrence of the first ASF outbreak in Gyeounggi-Do on 17 September 2019 [reference1]. A day after, additional outbreak was reported on a farm within 50km; both outbreak farms were located within 10 km from the Demilitarized Zone. More than 10,000 pigs have been destroyed due to the ASF [reference2, reference3, reference4]. Emergency measures implemented include: ban on pig movement from Gyeonggi-do to other provinces for a week; swill feeding has been prohibited nationwide; a nationwide standstill order for pig farms, slaughterhouses, feed mills, and related transport vehicles was implemented from 17 September 2019 06:30 for 48 hours, to check and disinfect 6,300 pig farms; and together with the Ministry of Environment, will estimate the wild boar populations in the 14 cities / counties along the border. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the infected farms had a total of 507 epidemiologically related sites across 5 provinces: i) Paju outbreak - 328 locations (Gyeonggi 251, Gangwon 60, Chungnam 13, other 4); ii) Yeoncheon outbreak - 179 places (Gyeonggi 147, Gangwon 15, Chungnam 6, Jeonnam 4, Gyeongbuk 3, other 4). Six high-risk cities/counties including Gimpo, Pocheon, Dongducheon, Cheorwon, Paju and Yeoncheon are designated as the 'ASF Critical Control Area'; the ban on pig movement from 'ASF Critical Control Area' to other area was extended to three weeks except slaughter only at designated slaughterhouses; entry of those who have frequent contact with pigs (veterinarians, personnel from feed company, etc) to pig farms in Gyeonggi-Gangwon area will be restricted except for the purpose of treating the sick animals [reference5, reference6].

 

China

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed its first ASF outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, 157 ASF outbreaks detected in 32 Provinces / Autonomous Regions / Municipalities / Special Administrative Region. About 1,170,000 pigs have been culled in an effort to halt further spread.

 

The Philippines

On 9 September, the Department of Agriculture confirmed the first ASF outbreak started on 25 July 2019 in mostly backyard pigs; 7,952 pigs died/culled [reference1]. 14 of the 20 pig samples from Rodriguez Municipality in Rizal Province, Guiguinto Municipality in Bulacan Province and Antipolo city, Rizal, tested positive for ASF [reference2]. Food scraps from hotels and restaurants fed to pigs, or from imported pork products, are suspected as the cause [reference3].

 

Viet Nam

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) confirmed its first ASF outbreak on 19 February 2019, all 63 provinces/cities reported outbreaks, more than 4,700,000 pigs have been culled.

 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Salavan Province on 20 June 2019, a total of 94 ASF outbreaks were reported, in 15 out of its 18 Provinces/city. More than 25,000 pigs have died or been destroyed due to the ASF.

 

Cambodia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Ratanakiri Province on 2 April 2019, ASF outbreaks were detected in 5 Provinces.

 

Myanmar

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation confirmed the first ASF outbreak in on 1 August 2019, a total of 3 ASF outbreaks were reported in Shan State.

 

Actions taken by China

 

MARA released the 2019 edition of the ‘ASF Epidemic Emergency Implementation Plan’ [reference]. MARA updated regulations on pig slaughterhouses: It tasks pig slaughter enterprises to conduct self-inspection by using PCR. If ASF is detected, the slaughtering enterprise should stop production for 48 hours, then apply for evaluation to resume production [reference]. In order to strengthen ASF prevention and control measures MARA released a notice on the special action for "cleaning and disinfection" on 6 September to organize special campaign "comprehensive cleaning and disinfection" to reduce the risk of disease outbreak and spread of virus. The notice includes: 1) Awareness on the importance of cleaning and disinfection, 2) All provinces/autonomous regions/ municipalities to organize “great cleaning and disinfection” special campaign before the end of October, 3) Strengthen cleaning and disinfection measures in high-risk areas. According to administrative and media reports, there are problems of discarding and burying dead pigs in some places. All areas should increase the intensity and implement thorough cleaning and disinfection to farms where pigs have died abnormally, sites where pigs are discarded or privately buried, 4) Guide and supervise disease control body on cleaning and disinfection measures, 5) Strengthen technical training and material reserves. The China Animal Disease Prevention and Control Center and the China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center should provide technical guidance on cleaning and disinfection work in various places [reference].

Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China

Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China
Click to enlarge - * Including detection in live pigs in intercepted vehicles. For cases with unknown onset date, detection date, confirmation date or reporting date was used.

Source: Veterinary Bureau, MARA, China.

 

Actions taken by Viet Nam

 

Viet Nam has implemented movement control of pigs and pig products from affected communes. The Central Committee of the Communist Party issued the Directive (No.34-CT/TW, 20 May) to strengthen their leadership and operational instructions for effective implementation of ASF response, control and prevention. MARD issued a guidance on Handling and disposal of African swine fever-infected pigs by incineration (No.4178/HD-BNN-TY, 14 June), and on Control of transportation of pigs for breeding and commercial farming in and outside ASF areas (No.4249/HD-BNN-TY, 18 June). In case of pig transportation into and out of epidemic areas located in provincial localities, these pigs have to show negative test results for ASF. If pigs originate from other provincial localities, in addition to negative test results shown for ASF, pigs have to be quarantined and granted quarantine certificates for transportation out of the provincial localities. For pig transportation across epidemic areas, apart from above, notify localities of the pig transportation roadmap. Means of transport have to follow the routes as guided by the veterinary management agency of localities which pig transporting means travel across.

 

Figure 2. Newly affected communes/week in Viet Nam including estimated number of communes affected anytime in the past

Newly affected communes/week and the distribution by Regional Animal Health Office (RAHO), <strong>Viet Nam
(Calculated figure)

 

Actions taken by Cambodia

 

Cambodia has implemented movement control of live pigs, pork and pork products for the Kampoul Serey and Soay Village, Mean Commune, Oraing Ov district, Tbong Khmum Province; and stamping out, disposal and disinfection in affected villages. Further investigations have been carried out in neighbouring areas. On 31 July 2019, the Prime Minister issued a Circular directed Ministries of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Interior, and Economy and Finance to take urgent and necessary measures for prevention and control of ASF in the country and from neighbouring countries. The authorities are strengthening farm biosecurity and testing animals at slaughterhouses [reference].

 

Additional news on unusual pig deaths

 

The Philippines: more swine deaths reported in Bulacan Province, in Barangay Santor, Malolos City [reference1], Sitio Veterans and Oriole in Barangay Bagong Silangan [reference2].


Thailand: Unconfirmed information about death of two pigs in a district of Chiang Rai, only 20 km from Myanmar [reference1, reference2].

 

 FAO’s recommendations

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Preparedness (e.g. contingency planning, standard operating procedures— SOPs, secured financial support) for improved early warning, detection and notification, early reaction, and coordination needs to be in place and reviewed periodically in relation to changing disease situation.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Good communication and coordination with swine producing commercial sector and swine famers are essential to strengthen cooperation in ASF prevention, detection, and control. Awareness and training of all stakeholders, from veterinarians to farmers, intermediaries and other value chain actors is needed.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Farm registries, animal identification and censuses are essential to enable animal health interventions.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.
  • Outbreak control strategies must be in place. The strategies need to be developed in consultation with the private sector (pig producers and allied industries, such as transport, feed operators) for improved disease management options and compliance.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  • Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management.

 FAO’s actions

  • ECTAD Viet Nam uploaded a video clip to YouTube on technical advice [reference].
  • Inception Workshop for the Regional Technical Cooperation Programme on African Swine Fever Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia was held in Bangkok (August 2019) [reference].
  • ECTAD/FAO Regional office for Asia and the Pacific attended the 2nd standing group of experts on African swine fever (SGE-ASF) meeting for Asia held in Tokyo, Japan (July 2019) [reference].
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Lao PDR to assess the ASF situation and preparedness and response strategy (June 2019).
  • FAO and World Bank delivered a joint presentation at the G7 CVO meeting (May 2019).
  • OIE and FAO delivered a joint presentation on ASF at the 87th OIE General Session, OIE, Paris (May 2019).
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Cambodia from 27 May to assess the ASF situation and response strategy (May 2019).
  • In Cambodia, the private sector organized an awareness-training program entitled "Breeding pigs under ASF threat", at which FAO ECTAD Cambodia presented the regional ASF situation (May 2019).
  • FAO project on ASF Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia” started (April 2019).
  • Beijing International Symposium on ASF was jointly organized by MARA, FAO and OIE in Beijing (APRIL 2019).
  • The GF-TADS Standing Group of Experts (SGE) on ASF for Asia was held in Beijing, hosted by MARA (April 2019).
  • FAO in collaboration with the General Directorate of Animal Health and Production (GDAHP), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cambodia, organized a National Consultative Workshop on the Development of ASF Preparedness and Response Plan (ASF-CPRP) in Cambodia (April 2019).
  • FAO organized a workshop on ASF Preparedness & Response Plan and portable PCR in Cambodia (April 2019)....[and more]

Useful links

  • African swine fever (ASF) detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017) [English, Русский, 中文]
  • FAO FOOD OUTLOOK (ASF special report from p. 71) [Link]
  • Presentations of the 1st Standing Group of Experts on African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia are available here
  • Presentations of the International Symposium on Prevention and Control of ASF also available Part 1: Strategy, Part 2: Eradication, Part 3: Control measures, Part 4: Diagnosis and vaccines.
  • Regional strategy for the control of ASF in Africa (FAO, AU-IBAR and ILRI, 2017) [Link]
  • Manual on the preparation of African swine fever contingency plans (2001) [Link]
  • Rapid risk assessment of ASF introduction into China (Mar 2018) [Link]
  • Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials [Link]
  • Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector (2010) [Link
  • ASF awareness video [Link]
  • OIE disease card [Link], OIE Manual (2012) [Link], OIE Code [Link], OIE weekly ASF situation reports [Link]
  • Global ASF Research Alliance [Link