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ARCHIVE H7N9 situation update

19 May 2016, 17:00 hours; Rome

The next update will be issued on 22 June 2016

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H7N9 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Situation: Influenza A(H7N9) virus with pandemic potential.
Country: China; three human cases originated in China and were reported in Malaysia (1) and Canada (2).
Number of human cases: 786 confirmed; 307 deaths (since February 2013)
Provinces/municipalities: Beijing and Shanghai; Anhui; Fujian; Guangdong; Hebei; Henan; Hunan; Jiangsu; Jiangxi; Shandong; Zhejiang; Guangxi; Guizhou; Jilin; Qinghai; Hubei; Taiwan Province of China; Hong Kong SAR; Macao SAR, Ningxia Hui and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regions; Sabah (Malaysia); British Columbia (Canada).
Animal/environmental findings: over 2,000 virological samples from the environment, chickens, pigeons, ducks and a tree sparrow tested positive; positives mainly from live bird markets, vendors and some commercial or breeding farms.
FAO actions: liaise with China and partners, monitor situation, monitor virus evolution, conduct market chain analysis, risk assessment, surveillance guidance and communication.

Map. Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment

Human cases and positive findings in birds or the environment
Click to enlarge - Note:  Human cases are depicted in the geographic location where they were reported; for some cases, exposure may have occurred in a different geographic location. Precise location of 56 human cases in Fujian (28), Jiangsu (12), Zhejiang (12), Guangdong (1), Hunan (1), Hubei (1), and Xinjiang (1) are currently not known. These cases are therefore not shown on the map. Imported cases in Canada (2) and Malaysia (1) are also not represented.

 

 

 Situation update

Animals

  • 10 May: MoA published the results of the national animal H7N9 surveillance for the month of April. 38,442 serum and 10,595 virological samples were collected from 2,105 locations in 20 provinces. Five virological samples from chickens in two markets in Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province (3) and one market in Liaoyuan City, Jilin Province (2) tested positive for H7N9 and 13 serum samples tested positive for H7 antibodies in Henan (7 chicken samples from 4 farms/household) and Zhejiang (2 chicken samples from 2 farm/household) Provinces [reference].

Figure 1. Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province and origin as of 19 May 2016

Number of positive virological samples from birds or the environment, by province* and origin
Click to enlarge


Humans

  • Since the last update (20 April 2016), one new human case has been reported in Shandong Province. Official MoH reports for the month of April showed that there were 11 additional human cases, including cases in Jiangsu (6) and Zhejiang (1).
  • For detailed information on human cases, please refer to WHO's Disease Outbreak News.

Figure 2. Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013 as of 19 May 2016

Number of officially reported human cases since February 2013
Click to enlarge

Figure 3. Incidence of officially reported human cases by month, based on onset date as of 19 May 2016

Incidence of officially reported human cases by week, based on onset date
Click to enlarge - Note: For cases with unknown onset dates from wave 1 (n=7), wave 2 (n=2), wave 3 (n=146) and wave 4 (n=46), reporting dates were used instead.


Publications

  • In addition to the surveillance findings by MoA and MoH, 1,728 virologically positive samples have also been reported in 12 peer-reviewed articles (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). A total of 71,920 samples have been collected in these studies since April 2013, of which 1,728 (2.4%) were positive for H7N9 (1,215 environmental samples, 501 chickens, 1 goose and 1 tree sparrow).
  • Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the six internal segments of the influenza A (H7N9) virus isolated from confirmed human cases and environmental samples in Shenzhen Province, China, during the second wave clustered into two distinct groups, which differed significantly from viruses isolated during the first wave. H9N2 viruses prevalent in southern China played an important role in the reassortment [reference].

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