Reduction of the evaporation of ammonia causing acid rains from animal housing and manure storage
Construction of well-sealed manure tanks made of concrete and sealed with a strong plastic cover, the manure storage should be emptied in time and prevented from overflowing onto land or surface water. The size of the manure storage should be sufficient to store manure for sufficient time to comply with local regulations for manure spreading and to match the nutrient requirements of the crops. Storage space required does depend on the quantity of wastewater (water spilled during drinking, water used for cleaning, and rainwater entering the manure storage). Adequate mixing equipment is required to empty the manure storage through pumping.
Standards in The Netherlands for quantities of manure mix (including manure and urine but excluding any wastewater) produced by livestock per annum are:
Reduction of air circulation by installing a cover on the manure storage will reduce the emissions of ammonia into the atmosphere.
Specially designed covers over manure storage will capture biogas (methane) formed through anaerobic decomposition of the organic matter in the manure. This process will work better in warmer climates.
Note: The experience with the capture of biogas direct from manure storage is limited.
The cost depends very much on the local situation (e.g. general construction cost, soil quality, regulations on manure storage) In The Netherlands, a storage capacity enough to hold 6 months manure production is required. Costs for manure storage are about US$ 50 per cubic metre.
Requirements are for about 5 cubic metres per sow and 1 cubic metre per fattener. This is very dependant on the quantity of water used for cleaning (including rainwater). For poultry the requirements are very variable, depending on the housing systems and manure storage systems used (wet, dry, deeplitter, artificial drying etc). Manure production per dairy cow is around 20 cubic metres. The storage requirement depends on specific regulations and production system. In the Netherlands a storage capacity is required of between 12 - 20 cubic metres per cow.
Targeted Livestock System
Proper manure storage is required for any livestock production system where livestock is kept in confinement and manure has to be stored for any length of time. In particular for the industrial livestock production systems and for the Mixed, cut and carry and for the Mixed, external feed systems.
Context of Application
Policy context: regulations for the storage of manure, and the development of specifications for manure storage (storage capacity, quality of construction and lengths of period of storage), coverage of storage.
Education/training: Explanation to the farmers of the need for proper
manure storage and technical specification of the manure storage.
Monitoring: EIA, Indicators
Agricultural Biological Engineering, Environmental Protection Agency and Purdue University (Minesota) http://danpatch.ecn.purdue.edu/~epados/farmstead/manure/src/title.htm
Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development of Ontario, Canada:
Storage of liquid manure
B.L. Harris, D.W. Hoffman and F.J. Mazac, Jr. Reducing Contaminatioin
by Improving Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities. http://waterhome.brc.tamus.edu/texasyst/texasystworkbooks/printedb6030a.html
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