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Tsetse-transmitted Trypanosomosis is an infectious disease unique to Africa and caused by various species of blood parasites. The disease affects both people [Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT) or sleeping sickness] and animals [Animal African Trypanosomosis (AAT) or Nagana] and occurs in 37 sub-Saharan countries covering more than 9 million km2, an area which corresponds approximately to one-third of the Africa's total land area. The infection threatens an estimated 60 million people and about 50 million head of cattle.

Currently, between 50,000 and 70,000 people are estimated to be infected. Every year, AAT causes about 3 million deaths in cattle while approximately 35 million doses of trypanocidal drugs are administered. Nagana has a severe impact on agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. The economic losses in cattle production alone are in the range of US$ 1.0 - 1.2 billion. A ponderated evaluation extrapolated for the total tsetse-infested lands values total losses, in terms of agricultural Gross Domestic Product, at US$ 4.75 billion per year.

The disease is included in the List B of OIE.

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