Gender in Climate-Smart Agriculture

This recent publication is new module of the Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook co-published by the World Bank, IFAD, and FAO. It gives evidence of tested practices and innovative approaches to gender mainstreaming in CSA useful to development agencies and practitioners, policymakers, civil society, researchers and academics, as well as those working in the private sector.


Learning tool on Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector 

FAO’s new online supports the efforts of developing countries in the identification, development and implementation of country specific mitigation actions in the context of national sustainable development. The tool has been designed for colleagues working in the agriculture sectors who want to understand more about the concept of NAMAs and increase their capacity to contribute to national and global climate change mitigation goals. La herramienta está disponible también en castellano.


Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture. A Manual to Address Data Requirements for Developing Countries

Countries report their greenhouse gas emissions and removals from all sectors via national greenhouse gas inventories, submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change  in accordance with international climate policy agreements and technical guidelines developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The agriculture sector represents a unique challenge for national inventory compilers, especially in developing countries, due to significant difficulties in compiling and regularly updating national statistics for agriculture, forestry and land use —the first necessary step in preparing national greenhouse gas estimates. This Manual provides Member Countries with a tool and methodology to help identify, build and access the minimum set of activity data needed for greenhouse gas estimation.  


MICCA Series 10
Science to support climate-smart agricultural development – Concepts and results from the MICCA pilot projects in East Africa
(November 2014)

The publication reports on the concepts driving the scientific activities of the MICCA’s pilot projects in East Africa. It provides the research results, describes the analytical approaches used and concludes with key messages relevant to discussions on Climate-Smart Agriculture. In partnership with the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), the East Africa Dairy Development Project (EADD) and Care International, the MICCA pilot projects mainstream Climate-Smart Agriculture in the regions by identifying, verifying and scaling up farm management practices that can both increase productivity and ensure smallholder farmers are part of the solution to climate change. 

MICCA Series 9
Towards climate-responsible peatlands management
(September 2014)

Responsible management practices can help to maintain peatland ecosystem services while sustaining and improving local livelihoods. This recent FAO publication gives guidance on responsible peatland management practices, supporting the reduction of GHG emissions from managed peatlands. This overview of current knowledge on peatlands, includes data related to their geographic distribution, ecological characteristics and socio-economic importance. The guide has been written to assist land managers and other decision makers. It documents case studies of responsible management practices: rewetting, paludiculture, degraded pasture restoration and forestry in all climatic regions. 

MICCA Series 8
National planning for GHG mitigation in agriculture: A guidance document
Also available in Spanish: Planificación nacional para la mitigación de GEI en la agricultura: Documento de orientación

The guidance document provides national policy makers, advisors and other stakeholders in the agriculture sector with an introduction to the main mitigation planning approaches and the key elements that may need to be considered in the planning process for agricultural systems. It describes two of the main approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation planning in developing countries: Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS) and Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). 

Agriculture, forestry and other land use emissions by sources and removals by sinks

A FAO report providing comprehensive knowledge on the regional and sectoral distribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) activities. The data is made available for free through the FAOSTAT Emissions database. The FAO GHG data are an integral part of the Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The new analysis highlights the role of agriculture in climate change, helping to clarify the critical importance of crop and livestock production, deforestation and peatland degradation. Better information on AFOLU emissions is critical in many developing countries, given the potential to identify and fund mitigation actions that can usefully bridge national food security, resilience, mitigation and development goals into one coherent package.

Gender and climate change research in agriculture and food security for rural development 

This guide provides users with resources and participatory action research tools for collecting, analysing and sharing gender-sensitive information about agricultural communities, households and individuals who are facing climate change. It shows inks between socio-economic and gender issues in the context of climate change in the agriculture and food security sectors. The guide also addresses the lack of information on how men and women adapt to and mitigate climate change. It describes what tools can be used for participatory rural research when gathering information on the interlinkages between gender and food security in a changing climate.

Also available in French Spanish 


MICCA Series 7
National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review paper

(March 2013)

This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector provides national policy makers and others in the agriculture sector with an overview of national mitigation planning processes to aid them in identifying the relevance of these processes for promoting agricultural development. It also highlights the relevance of agriculture in national mitigation plans and actions. These two publications (Series 7 & 8) are both based on input from a workshop, ’National mitigation planning and implementation in agriculture’, organized by the CCAFS and FAO at FAO headquarters in July 2012. 


Greenhouse gas emissions from the agriculture sector presented for the first time in FAO Statistical yearbook 2013

The 2013 edition of FAO's Statistical Yearbook sheds new light on agriculture's contribution to global warming, trends in hunger and malnutrition and the state of the natural resource base upon which world food production depends. FAO data presented in the yearbook show that Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture grew 1.6 percent per year during the decade after the year 2000, with the sector's total annual output in 2010 reaching 5 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.)


Tackling climate change through livestock

An important emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG), the livestock sector also has a large potential to reduce its emissions. This is the main conclusion drawn by the report “Tackling climate change through livestock”. This newly released report provides the most comprehensive global assessment made to-date of the livestock sector’s GHG emissions and its mitigation potential. Click to read more.

The report also presents a detailed assessment of the magnitude, the sources and pathways of emissions from different production systems and supply chains. Relying on life cycle assessment, statistical analysis and scenario building, it identifies concrete options to reduce emissions. It comes at a time when the world needs to urgently reduce GHG emissions to avert catastrophic climate change. The livestock sector can make an important contribution to such international efforts by offsetting some of the sector’s emission increases, which are expected as demand for livestock products is projected to grow by 70 percent by 2050. 


Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Livestock Production - A review of technical options for non-
CO2 emissions

This report presents a unique and exhaustive review of current knowledge on mitigation practices for greenhouse gas emissions in the livestock sector. It focuses specifically on non-CO2 emissions from enteric fermentation and manure management. It is part of a stream of activities being carried out by FAO to identify low greenhouse gas emission pathways for the livestock sector. The report references over 900 publications on the mitigation of direct nitrous oxide and methane emissions and highlights the most promising options, given their demonstrated effectiveness and feasibility for adoption. The review was deliberately limited to in vivo experiments to reflect what can be achieved with available mitigation practices. This in-depth assessment will inform the livestock industry, academia, governmental and non-governmental organizations that are interested in identifying and designing mitigation interventions for the sector. It will also help to identify research and development priorities in the area. 

MICCA Series 6
Agriculture, forestry and other land use mitigation project database
(January 2013)

This paper presents the second analysis of the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Mitigation Project (AFOLU MP) database. This follow-up study includes 575 projects from 12 di­erent registries. As with the first publication, this paper summarizes the insights that have been gained from the analysis of the updated database.

MICCA Series 5
Peatlands – guidance for climate change mitigation by conservation, rehabilitation and sustainable use (second edition)
(November 2012)

This report is a handbook for policy-makers, technical audiences and others interested in peatlands. The new, updated edition has additional information about grazing on peatlands, and includes updates on options for financing as well as measuring, reporting and verifying emissions and emission reductions. Click to read more

Peatlands store tremendous amounts of carbon. However, when they are drained and used – mainly for agriculture, grazing and forestry – peatlands become significant sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Peatlands drainage and peat fires are responsible for almost one-quarter of carbon emissions from the land use sector.
• The report was prepared by Wetlands International and FAO.
• For more information on organic soils and peatland, click here.

MICCA Series 4
Climate-Smart Agriculture: Smallholder Adoption and Implications for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation
(December 2011)

This paper provides a brief review of the adaptation and mitigation benefits from various practices, and then focuses in detail on empirical evidence concerning costs and barriers to adoption, both from household and project-level data. The report was prepared by MICCA colleagues in FAO's Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA)

MICCA Series 3
Climate-Smart Agriculture: A Synthesis of Empirical Evidence of Food Security and Mitigation Benefits from Improved Cropland Management

(December 2011)

This paper synthesizes the results of a literature review reporting the evidence base of different sustainable land management practices aimed at increasing and stabilizing crop productivity in developing countries. The report was prepared by MICCA colleagues in FAO's Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA)

MICCA Series 2
 Agriculture, forestry and other land use database

(November 2010)

The AFOLU MP database is a compilation of publicly available data on mitigation projects in agriculture and forestry. This paper describes the analysis and output of the database and the implications for the development of mitigation activities.
For more information on the AFOLU MP database, click here.

MICCA Series 1
Global survey of agricultural mitigation projects

(August 2010)

This global survey of agricultural mitigation projects provides a summary of the state-of-the-art of di­fferent projects currently developed in this sector. It contains data on 50 agricultural projects focusing on climate change, of which 22 were developed specifically with a greenhouse gas mitigation objective.

last updated:  Thursday, October 15, 2015