© FAO/ Alessandra Benedetti
Methodology and activities:

The methodology to answer our research questions has 3 components:
1) identifying and quantifying the access to diversity in a set of retail markets, 2) assessing the socio-economic, legal and regulatory factors that are likely to influence the market level of access to diversity and 3) relating the market level access to diversity to the farm level utilization of crop genetic resources and to measures of on-farm diversity and welfare.

Activities to undertake and criteria used in applying the methodology are the following:

Site/target crop selection criteria:

Study sites and target crops are located in areas where the crop grown is important for food security, has significant levels of local genetic diversity and for which markets are a significant source of seeds.

Value chain Analysis (VCA):

The objective is to map both input and output market channels (e.g. the marketshed) for the target crop and to provide a basis for understanding how crop genetic diversity is being transmitted through the market chain and why. Qualitative and quantitative data collection is used to identify the entire range of seed sourcing channels along with their strengths and weaknesses as well as to describe the markets. Among the qualitative instruments, Farmer focus groups represent one of the key means for gathering information.

Seed and grain retail market sample surveys:

Three instruments have been developed for data collection: the market observation, key informant and vendor surveys.
The market observation and key informant survey may be thought of as a part of the VCA using a structured interview protocol.

The vendor surveys are intended to gather information on market participants, crops, varieties, attributes, seasonality, quantities, prices for the retail market outlets for seeds. Setting the correct timing for collecting these data was critical.  The vendor survey must be done when seed is actually being sold on the market - this period needs to be determined via the value chain and through the focus group, or in a pre-survey.

Household survey:

Data were collected from farm households in the sample marketsheds on market participation, welfare, on farm diversity and general household demographics. Sample includes both participants and non-participants in the market for seed.

Policy and regulatory analysis:

This part of the study should cover not only seed regulation but also broader policies affecting the supply and demand of agricultural products and inputs as well as the development of agricultural markets.