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Food can be any nutritious substance obtained from animal and plants. However, some foods don't need to be nutritious and that do not provide nutrients, however, protecting and lubricating the mucus of intestine so the nutrients of the nutritious foods will be safely absorbed and rest secrete safely. Therefore I divide food into two major types 1. Nutritious food 2. Non-nutritious food. Nutritious food is that which provide nutrients whereas not nutritious is that which don't provide any nutrient, however, protect the body from the diseases and disorders. In the case of crops, Food security starts when farmers get the yield of an edible crop. Simply food security should start from the yield(seeds) and seeds are the reactants for the product(foods). Therefore we should protect good seeds as much as possible. In other words, concept food security should start from the seeds of crops and young ones of animals, birds and fish. These useful creatures can only be secure by creating awareness among the public. To achieve high yield, The Govt should supply disease and pest resistant varieties to the farmers. As chemicals are toxic to the environment and health. Govt should focus on research to develop biocontrol agents and teach the formulation of these biocontrol agents to the farmers. In the developed nations the researchers really doing a great job in securing food and even their Govt is seriously taking food security as a major challenge. That is why most of the developed nations are self-sufficient and don't need to import food from other countries. However, in the developing nations, the situation is not stable. There is always a power struggle between the rich and the poor. Coups and other political issues make the people vulnerable to diseases due to unavailability and improvision of nutritious foods. The farmers are major producers of food however in a situation where farmers is a servant and landlords are governing on him, so how can he take interest in the health of crops. Marketing problems and other issues are also in these developing nations. Mismanagement and corrupt political system of the countries are also a major challenge to these countries. As a result, no remarkable work is done to secure foods. Consequently, the whole world has to suffer. In such situations, who will provide good seeds to farmers and who will provide him subsidies. Finally, when farmers collect yield, the contractor comes and buy at cheap prices. Food security is indeed a major challenge in these developing nations. So what is the best cycle to secure food? The best cycle to secure foods is the Govt should provide seeds, fertilizers, and bioagents to the farmers, then the farmers after harvesting and getting yield should sell to the Govt. The Govt will then store for the next year or distribute to the public in a way that food is accessible to all citizens equally. The final step is to discard the leftover of the foods or recycle if it is still ok. This is few steps to secure food. The other suggestion, if the developing countries due to their weak political system and oscillating type of Govt system cannot contribute to food security. The UN should provide subsidies to the farmers and other inputs so they enhance yield. The pests and diseases due to climatic changes have so far become more severe. When I go through the literature in 2018, I was surprised to see the diseases and pests have considerably increased and caused huge losses to crops. Not only pest and diseases, look how fire engulf millions of acre land in California USA a few weeks ago. How much food did we lose? There is no published report but it is the reality we have lost considerable yield. The draft you have uploaded is still immature and most of the definition are not clear. Considering pest and disease are the major threat we should not deny other environmental factors which are almost not our control. So good management of pest and diseases and appropriate agronomic practices maximum food can be achieved. As aforementioned due to political instability and corruption, most of the developing countries are not contributing to food security. Therefore the people of these countries are suffering a lot. To achieve Zero hunger in these developing countries is just an idea and impossible unless these countries bring changes in their system. Even zero hunger is a wrong terminology, it is impossible to reach zero hunger even in the developing nation. The scale should start from 01 to 100 rather than 0. The dead do not become hungry so 0 hunger is the most appropriate term for them. Furthermore, if a country is developed, it does not mean it is exporting agriculture products. However, the real developing country is that which is self-sufficient in the staple food and also export staple food to other nation. Construction of high bridges, roads, building, and other infrastructure does not indicate that the country is also developed in terms of agriculture. For the sustainable production of food, the first thing is Seed should be HC or CH(healthy certified/certified healthy). If the seeds are healthy and free of contaminants or diseases or pest or pest parts, there are 90 percent chances high yield can be achieved if not disrupted by environmental uncontrollable variables. Healthy seeds should be provided by the Govts free to their farmers and we can safely say, till no seeds have not highly affected by climate change. A global problem climate change cannot influence so much a farm of hundred acres. If we secure the food within the farms then rest to make it accessible to all people is very easy. Some people say resource scarcity major issue in the developing nations. In real the developing nations are full of resources and can produce more food as compared to the developed nation if properly guided and provided assistance to the farmers of these nations. The farmers of these countries should be provided with the latest scientific knowledge to grow crops. Pest, diseases, soil and water management in these countries is also a big problem. These issues need to be resolved to get enough food to feed the increasing populations. In conclusion, food security should start at the farm level.
Everyone is familiar with the changing climate of the world. Countries are taking initiatives to minimize the effect of climate change on food security. Being a plant pathologist, we may incorporate biological agents to manage plant diseases. Fungicides and pesticides have impact on farming system as well as on environment. Moreover the fungicides give the results very quick. No doubt they are polluting the environment as well as super races of pathogens evolve. Biological agents such as Trichoderma spp, Coniothyrum spp as well as other in various formulations must be provided by the respective countries to the farmers in cheap price. The farmers will slowly become habitual to spray these biological agents on their plants. In this way thousands of beneficial species which are stabilizing the ecosystem can be saved from the toxicity of the chemicals. In the underneath of plants, we must create more completions between pathogen and biological agents so that the pathogens will not find time to infect plants as a result the yield will be boost up and will feed the growing populations. I am currently working on biological agents and find that biological agents perform well as compared to toxic synthetic fungicides. I think the environment become safer with the biological agents and if the environment would be safe, certainly the food and nutrition will be more secured. I want to explore the microbes further to gain sustainable agricultural systems.
Pulses can be easily introduced into the diets of countries where they are not consumed. People of those countries might prefer meat to overcome protein deficiencies. We have to motivate those countries that pulses are cheaper source of protein as compared to meats. Moreover, much care is needed to consume meat, the reason might be its high perishablity. The mature seeds of pulses (grain legume crops) are cultivated for human consumption. There is no need to apply synthethic fertilizers because of their ability to fix nitrogen. They are component of nitrogen cycle. They are restorative crops, they can restore the fertility of soil. Therefore pulses have many advantages as compared to crops. They prevent the soil from erosion. They may be best experimental tools and genes can be easily transferred. The whole genetics in the begining circles around Peas. Pulses also have high amounts of protein than the cereals crops such as wheat, rice and maize, therefore there is need to raise awarness about the importance of pulses in the diet. The proteins of animals is so expensive as compared to proteins obtain from pulses. Pulses are important food component of our country. Due to urbanizations, diseases and pest attacks and severe floodings have significantly reduced the yield of pulses. The importances of pulses can be highlighted in those countries by arranging seminars, workshops and modern varieties of pulses also be supplied. Setting research laborities for the development of resistant cultivars is also an important step.
Action of the UN on Nutrition will never reach rural areas, when there would be illiteracy. Even action of the UN on nutrition will never work in whole country, when the country is governed by corrupt politician and ferocious dictators. There will be no any improvement in nutrition and food security within the next ten years. Secondly the winner in todays election particularly in developing nations is the one who spent money, in other words who is land lord. So how can an institution work in such situation for the food safety in such places. Moreover, terrorist are killing people and in such violence how will the UN program for nutrition will work? In short, UN should first take serious steps to remove the corrupt politician and ban the terrorist organizations, then its program on food safety will do work. First safety of humanity is important than safety of food and vice versa. For the implementation of the UN action on Nutrition, the United Nations must hire the honest Academician rather than the government who can extend the knowledge of nutrition and food safety. Most of the governments are not even honestly complete their own five year plan particularly the governments of developing nations.
Bees are no doubt, the important and useful insects as they are acting as pollinators. They are in danger because of certain human activities. Today agriculture land in developing countries is depleting, as urbanization continuously dominating because of weak policies of their leaders. More vehicles, more fuel and more smoke, so the bees will be moving away from the agricultural lands, thus there would be drastic effect on pollination process of plants and farmers will get low yield. The more problem, as I think are conflicts among the nations, from the world war 1, up to now, countries are bombing on one another. In my opinion, useful insects like bees are in danger because of smokes coming out from fireworks, bombs and nuclear bombs. These bombs are more dangerous to every organism. The radiations coming out from these bombs are actually mutating the honey production potential of bees. Climate change is also because of human activities. All what we see extinction, is because of human activities. About three centuries ago, we could say because of nature. Now humans are using diesel, water vehicles, small-scale earthquakes because of nuclear bomb experiments, all these activities are polluting our environment as well as weakening the upper surface of earth. The world leaders are gathering annually to discuss climate change. Why not they reduce their nuclear weapons?? In my opinion, every bullet having chemical is mutagen for any organism. There is no solution, we cannot protect bees, to discuss such topic here seem to be futile, the only solution is use water as a fuel, stop preparation of nuclear bombs or other lethal bombs, everything will be ok. Use wind or water energy as a source for electric city, every organism even bees will be safe.