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Glossary - Incentives and Disincentives

Budgeted Expenditure commitments (reflect donors’ programming and changes in their policies)
Actual Effective disbursements (provide information and actual spending)
DonorExternal aid, provided either through local governments or specific projects conducted by international organization or NGOs
NationalIncludes expenditures from the national budget, either central or regional government, regardless of the ministry that implements the policy
TotalSum of donor and national expenditures
Agriculture specific policies<Monetary transfers that are specific to agriculture sector i.e. Agriculture is the only, or major, beneficiary of a given expenditure measure
Payments to the agents in the agro-food sectorMonetary transfers to the agents of agro-food sector individually
Payments to producersMonetary transfers to individual agricultural producers (farmers)
Production subsidies based on outputsMonetary transfers to agricultural producers that are based on current output of a specific agricultural commodity
Input subsidiesMonetary transfers to agricultural producers that are based on on-farm use of inputs
Variable inputsMonetary transfers reducing the on-farm cost of a specific variable input or a mix of variable inputs (seeds, fertilizer, energy, credit, other)
CapitalMonetary transfers reducing the on-farm investment cost of farm buildings, equipment, plantations, irrigation, drainage and soil improvements (machinery and equipment, on-farm irrigation, other basic on-farm infrastructure)
On-farm servicesMonetary transfers reducing the cost of technical assistance and training provided to individual farmers (pest and disease control, veterinary services, on-farm training, technical assistance, extension etc., other)
Income supportMonetary transfers to agricultural producers based on their level of income
Other transfers to producersMonetary transfers to agricultural producers individually for which there is insufficient information to allocate them into above listed categories
Payments to consumersMonetary transfers to final consumers of agricultural commodities individually in form of:
Food aidMonetary transfers to final consumers reducing the cost of food
Cash transfersMonetary transfers to final consumers to increase their food consumption expenditure
School feeding programmesMonetary transfers to final consumers providing free or reduced-cost food in schools
Other transfers to consumersMonetary transfers to final consumers individually for which there is insufficient information to allocate them into above listed categories
Payments to input suppliersMonetary transfers to agricultural inputs suppliers individually
Payments to processorsMonetary transfers to agricultural commodities processors individually
Payments to tradersMonetary transfers to agricultural traders individually
Payments to transportersMonetary transfers to agricultural commodities transporters individually
Agricultural sector supportPublic expenditures generating monetary transfers to the agro-food sector agents collectively
Agricultural researchPublic expenditures financing research activities improving agricultural production
Technical assistancePublic expenditures financing technical assistance to agricultural sector agents collectively
TrainingPublic expenditures financing agricultural training
Extension/technology transferPublic expenditures financing provision of extension services
InspectionPublic expenditures payments financing control of quality and safety of food, agricultural inputs and the environment (veterinary/plant)
InfrastructurePublic expenditures financing off-farm collective infrastructure (roads, non-farm irrigation infrastructure, other)
RoadsPublic expenditure financing roads mainly dedicated to agricultural activity
IrrigationPublic expenditure financing irrigation infrastructure
Other infrastructurePublic expenditure financing agricultural infrastructures that are neither roads or irrigation infrastructures
Storage/public stockholdingPublic expenditures financing public storage of agro-food products
MarketingPublic expenditures financing assistance in marketing of agro-food products
Other sector transfersOther transfers to the agro-food agents collectively for which there is insufficient information to allocate them into above listed categories
Rural development supportPublic expenditures that are not specific to agriculture, but which have a strong influence on agricultural sector development
Rural educationPublic expenditures on education in rural areas
Rural healthPublic expenditures on health services in rural areas
Rural infrastructure (rural roads, rural water, rural energy and other)Public expenditures on rural infrastructure
Rural roadsPublic expenditure financing roads dedicated to rural development
Water and sanitationPublic expenditures financing rural water and sanitation facilities
EnergyPublic expenditure financing rural energy
Other rural infrastructureOther public expenditures on rural infrastructures benefiting agricultural sector development for which there is insufficient information to allocate them into above listed categories
Other general transfersOther public expenditures benefitting the agricultural sector that can not be attributed to the above categories
Total expenditures in support of food and agriculture sector (policy transfers)Sum of agricultural-specific and agricultural-supportive expenditures
Identifiable administrative costs Administration costs include costs of formulation, implementation and evaluation of agricultural policies. They are not policy transfers as such. However, when support is provided via services, e.g. Extension, training, research or inspection, expenses associated with delivery of the services, e.g. Salaries of extension advisors, salaries of inspection officers or researchers should be included in this category.
Total support for agricultural sector (policy transfers + administrative costs)Sum of policy transfers and identifiable administrative costs
Total public budgetTotal public budget as published by the authorities
  Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation website OECD website NEPAD website OECD website US Aid website World Bank website