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Selection of reports related to AQUASTAT

Click on the cover page picture to see the publication on the FAO publications page, click on the PDF icon to open the report in PDF.

This questionnaire is an edited version of the original questionnaire used within the framework of the pilot project "The role of women in agricultural water management - Phase 1" (page 127-139). Changes have been made, because the objective of the original version was to concentrate on interviewing women - heads of agricultural holdings or family labour (wives or daughters) - only, based in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. This present edited version is useful to interview both women and men and also in multiple countries. (Document in French)  


This paper presents the results of a follow-up project in Algeria and Tunisia on the development of gender-sensitive indicators related to the role of women in agricultural water management. The paper summarizes the results of the "Phase 1" project, then presents the results of two studies conducted in Algeria and Tunisia on institutional level actors dealing with agricultural water management and national-level sex-disaggregated data. Most importantly, the paper reflects on the efforts to mainstream gender in statistics relative to agricultural water management, the limitations in collecting this data and finally offers various recommendations to reduce the gaps related to gender in water statistics. (Document in French)  


Dams and their associated reservoirs provide many services. However, these artificial lakes and reservoirs evaporate more water than the natural surface water flow before the dam was built, because dams generally increase the surface area of the body of water. This means that more water is exposed to air and direct sunlight, thus increasing evaporation. This "lost" water is referred to as consumed, because it is removed from the system. Due to its importance in some cases, AQUASTAT has estimated the evaporation for all artificial lakes and reservoirs that are available in its geo-referenced dams database. This exercise is a very rough estimation, with many limitations, and it thus should be considered as an 'order of magnitude' study only.  


One of the first products developed by AQUASTAT, since its start in 1994, has been the water resources assessment methodology. Even though very useful, during the 20 years that AQUASTAT has been using this methodology it appeared that the methodology is not without shortcomings and is in some cases overcomplicated. It has become increasingly apparent that some of the main problems should be addressed. Therefore, in March 2015 AQUASTAT has implemented some changes, which are described in this note. While the proposed changes do not address all problems, they do constitute an important step forward that will allow the programme to deliver statistics with higher accuracy while simultaneously reducing the amount of unnecessary complication.  


Within the context of the AQUASTAT database, metadata is assigned at three levels: database, concept (variable-country-year), and data-point. This document describes AQUASTAT's experience in designing and implementing a system whereby contextual qualitative information (metadata) can be applied directly to data-points. It describes the metadata concept, provides examples, and shows how the system has been implemented in the AQUASTAT database. The target audience for this document is other data owners and/or data managers that might be interested in adding structure to their notes.  


This chapter on "Irrigated areas" of the Atlas of African agriculture research & development describes irrigation areas in Africa, shows them on a map and explains the underlying data. The atlas is part of a wide-ranging eAtlas initiative that showcases, through print and online resources, a variety of spatial data and tools generated and maintained by a community of research scientists, development analysts, and practitioners working in and for Africa.  


This Working Paper describes the result of a pilot project in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia on the development of gender-sensitive indicators related to the role of women in agricultural water management. The study shows that it was not possible to have gender-disaggregated data at national level, especially related to water and agriculture. Therefore the information gathered cannot yet be included into the AQUASTAT database, which contains national-level data. However, despite this constraint, the project certainly played an important role with regards to the reflection on gender-sensitive indicators and some proposals on gender-sensitive indicators are given in the document. (Document in French)  


To make the wealth of information in AQUASTAT more easily accessible to the general public, AQUASTAT has prepared a "Did you know…?" page with data and information on three topics: (i) Precipitation and renewable freshwater resources; (ii) Water withdrawal and pressure on water resources; (iii) Irrigation areas, irrigated crops, environment. In addition to key fact and figures available on that page, six infographics have been prepared.  


This information note covers a twenty year history of the collection and analysis of water-related data and its dissemination as an international public good, freely available to all. The process of collecting and checking the data has resulted in the establishment of a unique network of collaborators who provide data, use data from other countries for comparative purposes, and exchange views and experiences on how best to measure and account for water-related use. Users range from international private companies to non-governmental organizations, and virtually all significant reports related to water depend on the data provided by AQUASTAT.  


Information brochure on AQUASTAT – the most quoted source on global water statistics. It explains the collection, analysis and dissemination of information on water resources water uses and agricultural water management with an emphasis on countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and summarizes its main products.  


This report describes the update of the Digital Global Map of Irrigation Areas to version 5. For this update, the inventory of subnational irrigation statistics was updated with new information derived from national census surveys or irrigation sector studies. For the first time, the global map of irrigation areas also contains data layers on the percentage of area equipped for irrigation that is actually irrigated and on the source of irrigation water: groundwater, surface water, water from non-conventional sources.  


This report presents the results of the most recent survey carried out in the six countries of the Central Asia region, and it analyses the changes that have occurred in the ten years since the first survey. Section I describes in detail the methodology used and contains a glossary of the terms used. Section II contains the regional analysis presenting a synopsis on water resources, water use and irrigation in the region and the trends over the last ten years. It also describes the legislative and institutional framework for water management as well as environmental issues and it presents prospects for agricultural water management from the countries’ perspective. Section III contains detailed country profiles for Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and one river basin profile for the Aral Sea basin.  


To estimate the pressure of irrigation on the available water resources, AQUASTAT has undertaken a major review of irrigation water requirement and water withdrawal for irrigation for 167 countries. Detailed irrigated crop calendars have been prepared by country. The improved methodology used has made it possible to show additional variables in the AQUASTAT database: water withdrawal for irrigation, irrigation water requirement, as well as harvested irrigated crop areas. Regional and country tables have been prepared on areas equipped for irrigation, actually irrigated areas, irrigated harvested crop areas, with special attention to irrigated cereals, and irrigated fodder and pasture, as well as water requirement ratios or irrigation efficiencies.  


This paper describes the rationale and method to setup and feed the AQUASTAT database on municipal wastewater production, collection, treatment, discharge or direct use in agriculture. The best available sources of information have been reviewed, including peer-reviewed papers, proceedings of workshops, conferences and expert meetings, global or regional databases, as well as country briefs, national reports and direct communications by country government officials and experts. Data from these sources has been selected, analyzed, validated and harmonized based on criteria and rules developed for accuracy and consistency of the information.  


FAO has recently embarked on a long-term programme on the theme "Coping with water scarcity – the role of agriculture". Based on an expert consultation, a conceptual framework has been developed to help address the question of food security under conditions of water scarcity. This report presents the conceptual framework, reviews a series of policy and technical options, and establishes a set of principles that should serve as a basis for the development of effective food security policies in response to growing water scarcity.  


This report presents the results of the most recent survey carried out in the 22 countries of the Southern and Eastern Asia region, and it analyses the changes that have occurred in the ten years since the first survey. Section I describes in detail the methodology used. Section II contains the regional analysis which presents a synopsis on water resources development and irrigation in the region. Section III contains a more detailed description of four transboundary river basins: the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna, Indus, Mekong and Salween river basins. Section IV contains the detailed profiles on the situation in each country: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam.  


This report summarizes the results and lessons of the project “Strengthening national water monitoring capacities, with emphasis on agricultural water management”. The project was implemented in two African countries, Benin and Ethiopia, and worked for two years with specialists in key stakeholder institutions to establish an information system on agricultural water management based on AQUASTAT. It may serve as a useful guide and provide detailed resources for governments, research institutions, donor agencies and other stakeholders working on the important task of improving their country’s information base for the management of agricultural water resources to create an equitable, efficient, and sustainable use of ever scarcer water resources.  


The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture (SOLAW) analyses a variety of options for overcoming constraints and improving resource management in areas of heightened risk. In each location, a mix of changes in institutional and policy measures will have to be combined with greater access to technologies for better management of land and water resources. Increased investments, access to novel financing mechanisms, and international cooperation and development assistance will also help overcome these constraints.  


This report contains the proceedings of an expert workshop on methods for assessing water resources and water uses in Latin America which was held in Santiago, Chile, on 1 and 2 December 2009. The workshop brought together professionals from various technical disciplines, all representatives of government agencies. It served as a preliminary step in defining the challenges and corresponding solutions in the area of water information, and served as a platform to raise the awareness of Latin American countries on the range of techniques used in the region.  


 
This technical note, describing the issue of cooling water for energy generation and its impact on national-level water statistics, has two purposes: 1) to act as a general informational resource and 2) to encourage governmental agencies responsible for water usage to gather and report information disaggregated by sub-sector (keeping thermoelectric withdrawals separate from industrial and hydroelectric withdrawals), and to determine the point at which lower water withdrawal designs are more favourable, even if the required capital cost is higher.  


 
This document describes the efforts to generate models that estimate the municipal and industrial water withdrawals for the years 2000 and 2005. Section 2 presents the WaterGAP2 model in order to evaluate its applicability for AQUASTAT to fill data gaps in its municipal and industrial water withdrawal data. Section 3 describes the final methodology used by AQUASTAT to estimate municipal and industrial water withdrawal data.  


While the extent of irrigation and related water uses are reported in statistical databases or estimated by model simulations, information on the source of irrigation water is scarce and very scattered. This new global inventory presents the extent of areas irrigated with groundwater, surface water or non-conventional sources of water, as well as the related consumptive water uses. The inventory provides data for 15 038 national and sub-national administrative units. Irrigated area was provided by census-based statistics from international and national organizations. A global model was then applied to simulate consumptive water uses for irrigation by source of water.  


The nomenclature surrounding water information is often confusing and gives rise to different interpretations and thus confusion. When discussing the way in which renewable water resources are utilized, the terms water use, usage, withdrawal, consumption, abstraction, extraction, utilization, supply and demand are often used without clearly stating what is meant. This note attempts to shed light on how the AQUASTAT programme defines these terms.  


This Manual consists of 14 modules: 1) Irrigation development: A multifaceted process (social, economic, engineering, agronomic, health and environmental issues to be considered in a feasibility study); 2) Natural resources assessment; 3) Agronomic aspects of irrigated crop production; 4) Crop water requirements and irrigation scheduling; 5) Irrigation pumping plant; 6) Guidelines for the preparation of technical drawings; 7) Surface irrigation systems; 8) Sprinkler irrigation systems; 9) Localized irrigation systems; 10) Irrigation equipment for pressurized systems; 11) Financial and economic appraisal of irrigation projects; 12) Guidelines for the preparation of tender documents; 13) Construction of irrigation schemes; 14) Monitoring the technical and financial performance of an irrigation scheme.  


This paper discusses the natural resource implications of the latest FAO food and agriculture baseline projections to 2050 “World agriculture: towards 2030/2050“. These projections offer a comprehensive (food and feed demand, including all foreseeable diet changes, trade and production) and consistent picture of the food and agricultural situation in 2030 and 2050. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an indication of the additional demands on natural resources derived from the crop production levels in 2030 and 2050 as foreseen in the FAO 2006 projections.  


This report presents the results of the most recent survey carried out in the 18 countries of the Middle East region, and it analyses the changes that have occurred in the ten years since the first survey. Section I describes in detail the methodology used. Section II contains the regional analysis which presents a synopsis on water resources development and in the region, including a more detailed description of four transboundary river basins: the Euphrates-Tigris, Kura-Araks, Asi-Orontes and Jordan river basins. Section III contains the detailed profiles on the situation in each country: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Georgia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.  


This paper gives an overview of dams in Africa, their main purpose, and future prospects. The inventory includes almost 1 300 large and medium-size dams, 40 percent of which are located in South Africa. The majority of dams has been constructed to facilitate irrigation (52 percent) and to supply water to municipalities (20 percent). Almost 20 percent of dams have multiple purposes, of which irrigation is almost always one of the purposes. Although only 6 percent of dams were built primarily for electricity generation, hydroelectric power accounts for more than 80 percent of total power generation in 18 African countries and for more than 50 percent in 25 countries.  


This CD-ROM contains the “Digital Global Map of Irrigation Areas (GMIA) Version 4.0.1”. The map shows the area equipped for irrigation around the turn of the twenty-first century as a percentage of the total area on a raster with a resolution of 5 minutes. The data collected through surveys by AQUASTAT were used to assure the overall quality and resolution of the information.  


This assessment describes key water-food-environment trends that influence our lives today and uses scenarios to explore the consequences of a range of potential investments. It aims to inform investors and policy-makers about water and food choices in light of such crucial influences as poverty, ecosystems, governance, and productivity. It covers rainfed agriculture, irrigation, groundwater, marginal-quality water, fisheries, livestock, rice, land, and river basins.  


The first version of the Digital Global Map of Irrigated Areas was published in 1999. It consisted of a raster map with a resolution of 0.5° by 0.5° containing the percentage of the area that was equipped for irrigation around 1995, the so-called irrigation density. For Version 2, updated maps of Latin America, Europe, Africa and Oceania have been published in 2002. With the update to version 3 in 2005 the map for the whole globe was generated by using the same methodology. In the present report, the update to version 4 in 2006 is presented which incorporates improvements for the continents of Africa and Europe and for parts of Latin America as well.  


This report presents the results of the survey carried out in the 53 countries of Africa during 2004-2005, and it analyses the changes that have occurred in the ten years since the first survey. Following the AQUASTAT methodology, the survey relied as much as possible on country-based statistics and information. A general summary presents a synopsis on water resources development, irrigation and drainage in the region. The CD-ROM accompanying the hard copy of the report contains detailed profiles on the situation in each country, while they are included in this digital version.  


A new version of a digital global map of irrigation areas was developed by combining irrigation statistics for 10 825 sub-national statistical units and geo-spatial information on the location and extent of irrigation schemes. The map shows the percentage of each 5 arc minute by 5 arc minute cell that was equipped for irrigation around the year 2000. This paper describes the data set and the mapping methodology and gives, for the first time, an estimate of the map quality at the scale of countries, world regions and the globe. Two indicators of map quality were developed for this purpose, and the map was compared to irrigated areas as derived from two remote sensing based global land cover inventories.  


This article describes the methodology used by AQUASTAT to assess natural and actual freshwater resources for the world by country. It deals with renewable water resources and concentrates mainly on the physical assessment of internal and external resources. It presents a picture of the state of the world’s water resources that is not only the natural state but also the current situation, taking into account existing uses of water and their implications for countries sharing river basins. Much remains to be done in order to obtain sound statistics on water resources, and particularly standardized data sets, at global level. This article presents some reflections in this sense.  


The approach developed in this study relies both on the countries' statistics and on modelling to provide a more reliable and more homogeneous global dataset of country agricultural water use. By combining available local information on irrigated areas in countries, on irrigated cropping patterns and on the different elements of the climate, it is possible to develop a robust conceptual model to assess the amount of water diverted for irrigation. The development of "irrigation cropping calendars" for each country, based on FAO's knowledge of the countries' agriculture is probably one of the most sophisticated ways to ensure reliable assessment of water use in agriculture.  


This information brochure describes AQUASTAT, FAO’s global information system on water and agriculture, operational since 1993. It collects, analyses and disseminates data and information by country and by region. Its aim is to provide users interested in global, regional and national analysis (e.g. policy-makers, decision-makers and researchers) with the most accurate, reliable, consistent and up-to-date information available on water resources and agricultural water management. All AQUASTAT products are available on the Web site and as published reports or on CD-ROM.  


This document was prepared for the Sixth Water Information Summit, Delft (WIS6), The Netherlands, 9-12 September 2003. It describes the AQUASTAT information system, which consists mainly of: a) systematic descriptions of the state of agricultural water management by country; b) up-to-date online data by country; c) digital geographical data on water resources and irrigation; d) specific thematic studies. Its experience indicates the importance of systematic data and information collection and evaluation, harmonized definitions and classifications, associated metadata, support for evaluation in the database management system, website properties to guarantee quick and good access for all users, and collaboration with other institutes.  


Producing our daily food requires one thousand times more water than we use to drink and one hundred times more than we use to meet our basic personal needs. Agriculture is the major source of food and by far the largest consumer of water on the globe. What is the role of water in the world’s food production? What are the contributions to food production from rainfed and irrigated agriculture and from fisheries? How can more food be produced with the same amount of water? What role does the market play? How does food security connect to poverty and water use? This report discusses these and many other questions using up-to-date information and state-of-the-art knowledge.  


This report focuses on the work done through the AQUASTAT surveys to collect and analyse available information on water resources for all countries in the world. It introduces the concepts and methodology applied to compute country-level water resources data, and presents and analyses key findings at both global and regional levels. A summary table provides the elements of the water balance for each of the 170 countries and territories surveyed.  


Water and food security are intimately connected. Many of the over 800 million people in the world who still go hungry live in water-scarce regions. A key question for the future is whether water shortage will act as a serious brake on food production during the coming decades. This note, while perhaps not the equivalent of a desert thunderstorm, could be compared to a gentle rain (often preferable, in agricultural terms). Its key message is this: over the next 30 years we can increase the effective irrigated area in developing countries by 34 percent and we will need only 14 percent more water to do so.  


This CD-ROM contains information on water resources and agricultural water use in Africa. The information is presented by river basin (major basin as well as sub-basins) and by country described in the country profiles, tables, geographical data layers, and a database of African dams.  


Agriculture accounts for about 70 percent of the freshwater withdrawals in the world and is usually seen as the main factor behind the increasing global scarcity of freshwater. In the framework of “World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030”, FAO reviewed the current status and role of irrigation in 93 developing countries, and assessed the likely situation of irrigation in 2015 and 2030. The method used in this assessment and the main results of the study, in terms of agricultural production, land under irrigation and agricultural water use are presented in this paper.  


This report presents the results of the AQUASTAT survey for 32 countries inf the Latin America and the Caribbean, carried out in 1999. The survey relied as much as possible on country-based statistics and information contained in national strategy papers. A general summary presents a regional analysis of water resources, irrigation and drainage in the region, and a series of country profiles describes the situation in each country more in detail.  


This report presents the results of the AQUASTAT survey performed in 21 countries in Asia in 1997 and 1998, relying as much as possible on country-based statistics and information contained in national publications. A general summary presents a synopsis on water resources development, irrigation and drainage in the region, and country profiles describe the specific situation of each country.  


In order to better understand the challenges Africa is facing related to irrigation, an overview of the water management situation in the continent is presented in this article. First a description of the present situation of irrigation in Africa is given. Then the irrigation is placed in the broader context of agricultural production and food security, with a special emphasis on Western Africa. Finally prospects for water management in Africa during the next decades are given. (French)  


This report presents the results of a survey on water and agriculture for the 15 countries of the Former Soviet Union, carried out in 1996 and 1997. The survey relied as much as possible on country-based statistics and information contained in national strategy papers. A general summary presents a regional analysis of water resources, irrigation and drainage in the region, and a series of country profiles describes the situation in each country more in detail. A section presents the specific problems related to water management in the Aral Sea basin.  


In order to provide a rational analysis for the discussion on increasing water scarcity and potential for irrigation expansion in the Near East, AQUASTAT compiled existing information on the water resources of the Region. Similar to a previous study on water resources of African countries, undertaken in 1995, this survey is based essentially on country-based statistics and information contained in sector studies and master plans. Due account has been taken of the interaction of groundwater and surface water and the problem of transboundary flows.  


This report presents the results of a survey on water and agriculture for 29 countries in the Near East region taken in 1995 and 1996. The survey relied mostly on country-based statistics and information contained in sector studies and master plans. A general summary presents a regional analysis of water resources and irrigation in the region, and 29 country profiles describe the situation in each country more in detail. (English)  


Assessment of irrigation potential in Africa is of prime importance for planning of sustainable food production on the continent. This study combines a review of existing information on irrigation potential by country with an approach using a geographic information system to assess land and water availability for irrigation on the basis of river basins. The results of this study and the methodology developed in the report should be useful to researchers and planners at national and regional levels working to achieve sustainable water resources development in Africa.  


This article is based on the study “Irrigation potential of Africa: a basin approach”. To integrate information on land and water at the river basin level, knowledge of irrigation water requirements per unit of land area is necessary. Arc-Info was used to define the geographical computation units, which are homogeneous regarding average rainfall, potential evapotranspiration, cropping pattern (calendar, intensity) and irrigation efficiency. Combining information on gross irrigation water requirements, area of soils suitable for irrigation and available water resources by basin eventually results in an estimation of the physical irrigation potential for Africa.  


In order to provide a rational basis for the discussion on increasing water scarcity and the potential for irrigation expansion in Africa, AQUASTAT compiled existing information on the water resources of the African continent. Contrary to previous attempts, this survey is based essentially on country-based statistics and information contained in sector studies and master plans. Due account has been taken of the interaction of groundwater and surface water and the problem of transboundary flows.  


This report presents the results of a survey on water and agriculture in Africa taken between October 1994 and April 1995. The survey relied mostly on country-based statistics and information contained in sector studies and master plans. A general summary presents a regional analysis of water resources and irrigation in Africa, and 53 country profiles describe the situation in each country more in detail.  


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