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Surface water and groundwater resources
Fiji’s islands have considerable differences in their water resources. The large islands are mountainous and have significant permanent surface water sources, while many small islands with low elevation have little or no permanent surface water and rely on groundwater and rainwater only.
The major river on Viti Levu is Rewa river which originates in Tomanivi, the highest peak in Fiji, and flows southeast for 145 km to Laucala Bay, near Suva. The Rewa river is fed by two large tributaries, the Wainibuka and the Wainimala. Other important rivers on this island are the Nadi, Navua, Ba, and Sigatoka. The main river on Vanua Levu is the Dreketi river.
Total renewable surface water resources are estimated at 28 550 million m³/year. The renewable groundwater resources are estimated at about 5 273 million m³/year, which are considered to be drained entirely by the surface water network (overlap). The total annual renewable water resources in the country are thus estimated at 28 550 million m³ (Table 2).
Lakes and dams
There are no important natural lakes in Fiji.
The most important dam in the country, constructed to produce hydroelectric power, is the Monasavu dam on the Nanuku river. It was completed in 1983 with a total capacity of 133 million m³. It is located just above the Monasavu Falls. Water from the dam is diverted through nearly 5.4 km of tunnels to the Wailoa Hydro Power Station on the Wailoa river, which supplies up to 60 percent of the country’s energy needs.
The Nadarivatu dam, also known as the Korolevu dam, is located on the upper reaches of the Sigatoka river and has a total capacity of 36 000 m³. The dam diverts water from the Sigatoka river through a 3 225 m long tunnel to a power station along the Ba river to the southwest. The power station was commissioned in 2012.
The Vaturu dam, in the drier west of Viti Levu, has some small hydroelectric energy generation benefits.
In 2015, total dam capacity in the country is estimated at 133 million m³ (Table 2).