Español || Français
      AQUASTAT Home        About AQUASTAT     FAO Water    Statistics at FAO

Featured products

Main Database
Global map of irrigation areas
Irrigation water use
Water and gender
Climate info tool

Geographical entities

Countries, regions, river basins


Water resources
Water uses
Irrigation and drainage
Institutional framework
Other themes

Information type

Summary tables
Maps and spatial data

Info for the media

Did you know...?
Visualizations and infographics
SDG Target 6.4
UNW Briefs

Read the full profile


Water resources

Total internal natural renewable water resources are around 2 018.3 km3/year (Table 2 and Table 3). Surface water resources are an estimated 1 972.6 km3/year and groundwater resources 457.4 km3/year. Most of the groundwater, an estimated 90 percent or 411.7 km3/year, returns as baseflow to the rivers. It is assumed that only 30 percent of groundwater resources, or 137.2 km3/year, are consumable, called ‘safe yield’ (Table 4) (Bakosurtanal, 2001). Over-abstraction of groundwater in Jakarta has caused saline groundwater to reach about 10 km inland from the coastline and has led to land subsidence at a rate of 2-34 cm/year in east Jakarta.

Although water resources are abundant, the seasonal and spatial variation in the rainfall pattern and lack of adequate storage create competition and conflicts among users. Municipal and industrial wastewater is discharged virtually untreated into the waterways causing rapid deterioration in the quality of river water.

Most of the lakes in Indonesia are of volcanic origin. Lake Toba is the largest volcanic lake in the world with an average surface area of 1 100 km2 and an average volume of 1 258 km3.

In 2006, total dam capacity reported was 22.49 km3, but total capacity is higher because the capacity was unknown for some dams. In 1995 total dam capacity was an estimated 15.83 km3. The dams with a capacity of over 1 km3 are Jatiluhur (2.89 km3), Siruar (2.82 km3), Cirata (2.17 km3), Pongkor (1.95 km3), Batu Bokah (1.67 km3), Kotopanjang (1.55 km3) and Riam Kanan (1.20 km3).

By developing large dams, Indonesia has progressively been able to extend its water resources utilization to support 2 200 MW of hydropower generation, representing 20 percent of the national generating capacity.


^ go to top ^

       Quote as: FAO. 2016. AQUASTAT website. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Website accessed on [yyyy/mm/dd].
      © FAO, 2016   |   Questions or feedback?    [email protected]
       Your access to AQUASTAT and use of any of its information or data is subject to the terms and conditions laid down in the User Agreement.