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Japan

Water use

In 1992, the total water withdrawal for agricultural, domestic andindustrial uses was 91.4 km│. The amount of water withdrawn for agricultural purposes in 1992 was estimated at 58.6 km│, which represents 64 percent of thetotal water withdrawal (Figure 1). With the exception of 3.9 km│ from groundwater, almost all water comes from rivers and small reservoirs in the fields. Out of 58.6 km│, 55.9 km│ (95.4 percent) is used for the irrigation of paddy fields, 2.2 km│ (3.8 percent) for the irrigation of non-rice fields, and the rest for livestock farming. The amount of water withdrawn for industry is estimated at 15.8 km│, and that for domestic purposes at 17 km│. About 9 km│ ofgroundwater is annually withdrawn for industrial and public use. This amount has gradually been reduced through efforts to recycle the water used in the industrial sector.


Other sources of water include recycled sewage and industrial wastewater as well as the desalination of seawater. The amount of water involved remains small compared with river water, but it is growing gradually. The volume of treated water reused in 1993 was 11 370 million m│. In 1995, the desalination capacity of plants was 69 500 m│/d. In addition, another project to establish a desalination plant has recently started in Okinawa prefecture with a capacity of 40 000 m│/d. Afirst stage of 10 000 m│/d was completed in February 1996.

Large amounts of water are also required for freshwater fishcultivation. About 8.2 km│ of water was reportedly allocated for this purpose in1991, of which 29.5 percent was withdrawn from aquifers.

     
   
   
             

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