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Water use

Rather than data on water withdrawal, Kenya provides data on water demand, which is slightly different but anyhow put in the Table 5 and Figure 1. The total water demand is estimated in 2010 to be over 3 200 million m³, aimed at agriculture for 59 percent, including irrigation for 50 percent, domestic uses for 37 percent and industry for 4 percent. Geographic distribution of the water demand is displayed in Table 6 (WRMA, 2013). In 2013, the water permits distributed by the WRMA allocate a total volume of 5 057 million m³, of which 64 percent are directed towards agricultural use, 22 percent towards municipalities and 14 percent towards industries (WRMA, 2015)

Surface water is the main source of water withdrawn. There is limited seawater desalinization mainly for the hotels along the coast, as well as for Kizingitini Island off the coast (4 m³/day) and a clinic in Mombasa (2 m³/day). However, one of the key projects according to Kenya’s national development strategy “Vision 2030” is a 100 000 m³/day (or about 36 million m³/year) desalination plant for Mombasa for 2017.

Sewerage systems have been constructed for only 29 urban centres, most of them before independence and thus requiring rehabilitation, with a treatment capacity of 341 000 m³/day (Table 7) (WRMA, 2013c).


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