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Water management, policies and legislation related to water use in agriculture
The main institutions involved in water resources management are:
- The Public Authority for Agricultural Affairs and Fish Resources (PAAFR), established in 1983. Traditionally, the PAAFR was affiliated to the Ministry of Public Works (MPW), but recently it has been moved under the Council of Ministers in order to provide it with more autonomy. The PAAFR is responsible for managing the agricultural economic development and enhancing food security. Administratively, the PAAFR is organized into five main sectors: i) animal resources, ii) fisheries resources, iii) plant resources, iv) landscaping, v) finance and administration (FAO, 2005). The Soil and Water Division is responsible for the design and evaluation of farm irrigation systems, testing irrigation equipment, crop water requirement research, monitoring of groundwater quality and quantity and water resources planning. The Landscape and Greenery Department is responsible for irrigation designs for highways and forestry areas.
- The Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW), established in 1962: responsible for studies, development, exploration, monitoring and giving licences for drilling and using groundwater;
- The Ministry of Public Works (MPW), established in 1962: responsible for sewage water networks and collection reservoirs, wastewater treatment and utilization and water quality monitoring laboratories. Also responsible for the delivery of treated sewage effluent to farms and public gardens.
- The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR): in charge of research related to water resources with the Water Resources Division and Environment and the Urban Development Division.
- The Environmental Public Authority (EPA), in charge of monitoring water quality, with water analysis laboratories, a research and studies centre and a soil and arid land division.
- The Ministry of Health (MOH).
In addition to government institutions, several farmers’ associations and cooperatives are active in the agricultural and fisheries sector, including the two agricultural cooperative societies in Al Wafra and Al Abdali, the Kuwaiti Farmers’ Federation, the Kuwait Association of Fishermen, the Animal Wealth Cooperative Society, the Federation of Fresh Milk Producers and the Society for Poultry Growers (FAO, 2005).
The Industrial Bank of Kuwait (IBK) is responsible for administering the “Agriculture and fisheries credit portfolio”, which is a fund earmarked for soft loans for investment in agriculture and fisheries (FAO, 2005).