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Environment and health
Lesotho’s ecology is fragile because of the mountainous topography, the thin soil layer and the limited vegetative cover. Population pressure has forced settlement in marginal areas, resulting in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, soil exhaustion and desertification.
Poor management practices and infrastructure improvements have had serious negative impacts on water resources, through the destruction of wetlands and their hydrological functions, changes in water regimes due to overgrazing and inappropriate cropping practices, and increased sediment production caused by mining and road construction.
Water pollution by slurry from diamond mines is recognized as an environmental problem.