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Republic of Moldova
Economy, agriculture and food security
In 2014, the gross domestic product (GDP) was US$ 7 944 million and agriculture accounted for 15 percent of GDP, while in 2004 it accounted for 20 percent.
Agriculture has traditionally been a major component of the Moldovan economy. In the Soviet era, the country produced 40 percent of the Soviet Union's tobacco, 10 percent of its fruits and 5 percent of its vegetables, while it represented only 0.15 percent of the total area of the Soviet Union. However, the breakdown of collective and state farms due to the independence had a negative consequence for growth in the agricultural sector (World Bank, 2010). Main annual crops now are maize, wheat, sunflowers and barley. Vineyards and fruit trees are the main perennial crops (World Bank, 2010).
The country's location makes it prone to marked changes in weather conditions, resulting in fluctuating agricultural production. The agricultural potential is concentrated in two regions:
- the north, with the rich black soils and the fertile Nistru river valley;
- the south, with its calcium soils (carbonate black soils) and warm climate, which make it particularly suitable for irrigated vineyards, as well as for peach and apricot orchards.