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Republic of Moldova
Environment and health
Sources of pollution of surface water and groundwater are mainly due to households individual sanitation systems, poorly or non-treated municipal wastewater discharges from inadequate solid waste management sites and from power and industrial plants.
The State Hydrometeorology Service carries out monitoring of surface water, through a network with 49 monitoring sections on 16 rivers, and 6 reservoirs. The State Public Health Surveillance Service has a sampling network of 60 points on 11 water bodies checking chemical, microbiological and parasitological parameters. According to the most recent monitoring data, the level of pollution of rivers Prut, Nistru, and Danube do not seem to have changed significantly compared to earlier years. These rivers are considered moderately polluted. Lack of adequate sanitation systems and sanitary protection zones around groundwater sources means that 75 percent of the rural population is relying on groundwater of inadequate quality (Eptisa, 2012). Investigations indicate a strong correlation between groundwater quality in unconfined aquifers and land use. Degradation of drinking water quality is also attributed to increased livestock growing by households.
Due to the uncontrolled use of water from wells, the water table depth in these aquifers has increased drastically, leading to depletion of the aquifer in many regions of the country (Climate Adaptation, 2015).
Poor quality drinking water is estimated to cause up to 22-25 percent of cases of diarrheal diseases, 15-20 percent of cases of viral hepatitis A, and 100 percent of cases of dental fluorosis (Tronza, 2014).