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Turkmenistan

Water use

In 2004, total water withdrawal was an estimated 27.958 km3, of which 94.3 percent for agriculture (93.6 percent for irrigated farming, 0.3 percent for livestock breeding complexes and farms, 0.3 percent for pastures, 0.1 percent for fisheries), 2.7 percent for municipalities and 3.0 percent for industries (Table 4 and Figure 1). In 1994, total annual water withdrawal was an estimated 23.8 km│, of which 98 percent for agriculture, 1 percent for municipalities and 1 percent for industry.




Since 1970, water withdrawal from the Amu Darya and other rivers has nearly doubled. At the same time the loss rate has increased alarmingly, from 20 percent of the intake in the 1970s and the 1980s, to more than 30 percent since 2000. In 2004, the loss rate was around 31 percent. The main reasons for conveyance loss in the system are evaporation and filtration (Stanchin and Lerman, 2006).

Of total withdrawal of 27.958 km3, 97.4 percent or 27.237 km3 was primary and secondary surface water, 1.1 percent or 0.305 km3 was primary and secondary groundwater, 1.2 percent or 0.336 km3 was direct use of treated wastewater and 0.3 percent or 0.080 km3 was direct use of agricultural drainage water (Figure 2). In 1994, 0.401 km3 of groundwater was withdrawn, of which 0.214 km3 for municipal use, 0.151 km3 for agriculture and 0.036 km3 for industry.


Increasing production of desalinated water meets less than 1 percent of the demand for drinking water and industrial needs. Desalinated water and treated wastewater (direct use) are not used for irrigation.

     
   
   
             

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