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International water issues
Uganda is a member of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI), an inter-governmental partnership launched in 1999, together with the nine other Nile riparian countries. Because both the 1929 and 1959 Nile Water Agreement assigned the Nile's water to Egypt and Sudan without including Uganda and the other riverside nations, the NBI was intended to strengthen the cooperation within the basin. The NBI, whose headquarters are in Entebbe, Uganda, prepared a Strategic Action Programme, which consists of two sub-programmes: the Shared Vision Programme (SVP) and the Subsidiary Action Programme (SAP). The SVP is to help create an enabling environment for action on the ground through building trust and skill, while the SAP is aimed at the delivery of actual development projects involving two or more countries. Projects are selected by individual riparian countries for implementation and submitted to the Council of Ministers of the NBI for approval.
The NBI is intended to be a transitional institution until the Cooperative Framework Agreement (CFA) negotiations are finalized and a permanent institution created. This new Nile CFA was signed in 2010 by Uganda and four other countriesâ€“Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and United Republic of Tanzania–and in 2011 by Burundi. Egypt strongly opposed this agreement which gives deciding power over large-scale hydraulic projects to a commission representing all the signatories, hence cancelling Egypt's historical right of veto. Sudan, South Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are still to decide upon the CFA signature. The CFA was put on hold due to the Egyptian revolution.
Uganda is also member of the Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC) established in 2004 by the East African Community and formerly known as the Lake Victoria Development Programme (MWE, 2013b). The LVBC's objective is to coordinate the various interventions on the lake and its basin, which is considered an area of regional economic interest to be developed jointly by the five members-Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda and United Republic of Tanzania, together with Uganda.