Read the full profile
Total water withdrawal of the country increased from 300 million m³ in 2002 to 637 million m³ in 2008 (Republic of Uganda, 2010). The greatest water user was the municipal sector withdrawing 328 million m³, followed by irrigation and livestock withdrawing 259 million m³, and industry withdrawing 50 million m³ (Figure 1). Only 1 percent of Uganda's total renewable water resources renewable water resources are withdrawn (Table 6). Underdeveloped, they are nonetheless under increasing pressure, especially from population growth.
Groundwater represents the main source of municipal water supply for the rural population of Uganda. It is also important for livestock use, particularly in the drier regions. Groundwater extraction takes place from springs, boreholes and to a lesser extent from hand dug wells. Surveys have identified some 12 000 springs in Uganda, of which more than 4 500 have been developed and protected for safe use. About 9 000 boreholes, typically drilled to a depth of 60 to 90 meters, are equipped with hand pumps. Rates of actual extraction are low and most boreholes are fitted with hand pumps with capacities between 0.6 and 1.2 m³/hour depending on the pumping head.
Around 7.62 million m³/year of wastewater is produced, but only 7 percent of Kampala City is connected to sewerage network and at national level only 2 percent of the inhabitants in 17 cities (UNWAIS, 2012). The Bugolobi sewerage treatment plant is the only one in Kampala; it has a design hydraulic capacity of 33 000 m³/day (but currently treating 15 000 m³/day) for secondary treatment (Twinomucunguzi, 2011). Additional treatments plants are planned for the capital: the Lubigi treatment plant, located in the middle of the Lubigi swamps in the outskirts of Kampala, will treat 5 400 m³/day; the Nakivubo plant is under construction; and the Kinawataka and Nalukolongo are planned. Once completed, they will be able to treat 30 percent of Kampala's wastewater.