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Viet Nam

Water use

In 2005, the total annual water withdrawal for agriculture, industries and municipal purposes was an estimated 82.03 km3. Irrigated agriculture uses the most water, accounting for 77.75 km3 or 94.8 percent of total water withdrawals (Table 4 and Figure 1). Industrial and municipal sectors account for 3.07 km3 (3.7 percent) and 1.21 km3 (1.5 percent) respectively. In 1990, total annual water withdrawal was around 54.3 km3, of which agriculture accounted for 86 percent, industrial use for 10 percent and municipal use for 4 percent.

In 2005, primary surface water withdrawal was around80.45 km3 (98.1 percent of total water withdrawal), while primary groundwater withdrawal accounted for only 1.40 km3 (1.7 percent) (Figure 2). Groundwater is mainly used for municipal water supply in urban areas. In 2003, reused treated wastewater was about 175 million m3, which represents 0.2 percent of total water withdrawal. In 1990, it was estimated that less than 1.5 percent of the water withdrawal was met by groundwater.


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