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International water issues
Zimbabwe shares six major river basins with neighbouring countries: Zambezi, Limpopo, Nata, Save, Shashe (part of the Limpopo river basin) and Pungwe (Table 4). It is cooperating with other members of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) on the shared management of the regionís river systems. The country is a signatory to the SADCís Shared Water Course Systems Protocol and its revised version, which provides the basis for the management of international rivers in the SADC region, which consists of 14 countries.
Zimbabwe is hosting the Zambezi Watercourse Commission (ZAMCOM), established according to the Zambezi Watercourse Commission Agreement signed in 2004 between the eight riparian countries (Table 4). More limited in scope, the Zambezi River Authority (ZRA) was established in 1987 between Zambia and Zimbabwe and is only dedicated to the management of the Kariba dam, replacing the previous Central African Power Corporation (CAPCO) of the Rhodesian governments.
Zimbabwe is also member of the Limpopo Watercourse Commission, established in 2003, together with the three other riparian countries: Botswana, South Africa and Mozambique. A Joint Water Commission with Mozambique manages both the Save and Buzi rivers and a similar Joint Technical Committee exists with Botswana for the Shashe river, part of the larger Limpopo basin, and for the Nata river. Finally the Pungwe River Basin Commission (PRBC) was formalized in 2002.
Despite the relatively scarce groundwater resources, some of aquifers are shared with neighbouring countries (Table 5). No agreement rules the sharing of these groundwater resources between the countries.